Essay on Herpes Simplex Virus

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Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) affects 90% of the world’s population, in order to understand how they can infect so many people we will look at the structure, life cycle, disease, and kinds of treatment for this virus3. In addition we will overview the epidemiology of the virus. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a linear dsDNA virus classified in Baltimore class I. Since it is a dsDNA virus their genome is about 200 kilobase pairs. The general structure of HSV-1 consists of an envelope, glycoproteins, icosahedral capsid, and linear dsDNA in the center. The envelope is covered with viral glycoproteins, gC and gD, that bind to heparin-sulfate receptors on the cell surface to initiate infection4. Within the envelope is the tegument which…show more content…
Then the pre-initiation complex is form at the TATA box. Then uses cellular DNA-dependent RNA polymerase mediated transcription at the viral promoter site. During transcription mRNAs are capped and poly-adenylation by host enzymes. Then mRNAs are transported to the cytoplasm for translation into early proteins and migrate back to the nucleus, which mediates viral DNA replication4. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes its own DNA dependent DNA polymerase and proteins that are needed for DNA replication. These proteins include ssDNA binding proteins, origin binding protein, and helicase/primase complex4. The first step of DNA replication is the binding of origin binding protein +ATP to the replication origin in order to denature DNA to open up a replication hole. Then helicase/primase complex synthesize new HSV-1 genomes and are cleaved forming a rolling circle intermediate. As rolling circle DNA replication continues to grow a specific sequence will mediate cleaving which creates and transport the new HSV-1 genomes for packaging in the capsid4. Late gene transcription occurs when early proteins switch to enhancing late gene transcription and inhibits early gene transcription. Structural proteins, glycoproteins, and icosahedral capsids are synthesized and transported to the nucleus4. Assembly of icosahedral capsids and viral proteins occurs in the nucleus around scaffolding proteins4. Encapsidation occurs

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