Modern medical advancements have significantly decreased the prevalence and severity of infectious disease as well as the treatment of acute, traumatic conditions. Pharmacological research has also gained insight into the management of chronic disease. Still, there is an epidemic of chronic, treatable diseases like stroke, heart disease, and kidney disease. Hypertension proves to be the underlying factor associated with these diseases. Hypertension is often referred to as the silent killer because of its indication in deadly disease, and the importance of monitoring ones blood pressure is vital. Lifestyle, diet, and genetic predisposition are all factors of high blood pressure. Chronic high blood pressure above safe levels, known as hypertension, puts elevated physical stress on the renal and cardiovascular systems. By controlling this factor in patients, healthcare providers can decrease cardiovascular events, improve health outcomes, and decrease overall mortality. Patient education is often overlooked in its role in the control and prevention of high blood pressure. This paper analyzes the causes and physiology behind high blood pressure as they relate to the current nursing interventions. The role of nurses is discussed in relation to patient education regarding high blood pressure, and educational approaches are analyzed.
Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, has become a major risk factor for several types of heart disease across the globe. In the United States alone, nearly 70 million adults have been diagnosed with this condition . Hypertension is a condition in which arterial walls experience extreme force from blood flowing through; long-term force against artery walls will lead to more serious health problems such as stroke, renal failure, and other cardiovascular diseases . If the proper steps to treat hypertension are not taken, patients have a high risk of developing atherosclerosis, a condition that causes arteries to harden significantly. Smoking, obesity, lack of physical activity, high alcohol consumption, and high sodium intake are factors that may cause an individual to be diagnosed with hypertension  Detection of hypertension is crucial in order to reduce the incidence of death by cardiovascular disease .
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major health condition which affects many Americans. This health condition may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. A normal blood pressure consists of systolic blood pressure divided by diastolic blood pressure, 120/80mmHg (millimeters of mercury). High blood pressure is defined as systolic pressure which is greater than 140mm Hg, and diastolic pressure which is over 90mm Hg. Hypertension influences the health outcomes of black Americans more than other races in the United States. Racial discrimination and socioeconomic status are two major factors which influence the rate of high blood pressure in the black American population.
The major health problem selected for this project was hypertension (Harrison et al, 2011). It is identified as a cardio vascular disease risk factor such as dementia, chronic kidney disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke (NICE, 2011). It can be missed easily, as in various instances it is asymptomatic as well as it is also known as a silent killer. The Hypertension is thought to be a disease of vascular regulation ensuing from arterial pressure control mechanisms malfunction (extracellular fluid volume, rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and CNS) that results in elevation of BP by means of enhanced peripheral vascular resistance, and cardiac output. There are 2 basic hypertension types. Around 90 to 95 percent of the individuals have primary hypertension which is linked with change in lifestyle as well as needs medical treatment. On the other hand, 5-10% has secondary hypertension which is linked with various other diseases for instance pregnancy, thyroid, and renal (Haslam and James, 2005). It is estimated that around 1 in 20 adults will have increased BP of 160/100 mmHg and above that results in either more than one predisposing aspects (Gemmell et al, 2006).
Hypertension is sometimes referred to as the silent killer (Aycock, Kirkendoll, & Gordon, 2013). Today it is a public health problem. According to the American Heart Association 2013 Statistical Fact Sheet (2013), one out of every three adults has high blood pressure, which is estimated at 77.9 million people (AHA, 2013). High blood pressure is also referred to as hypertension. Hypertension is a prevalent medical condition that carries with it the risk factor for increased chances of heart disease and stroke (Gillespie & Hurvitz, 2013). Hypertension remains one of the top 10 causes of worldwide disability-adjusted life years (as cited in Drenjančević-Perić et al., 2011). For the estimated 348, 102 deaths in 2009, high blood pressure was listed as the primary or contributing cause of death (AHA, 2013). Despite the health risk associated with hypertension, the diagnoses of high blood pressure continue to rise. By 2030, hypertension is expected to increase by 7.2% from 2013 estimates (AHA, 2013).
Hypertension (HTN) is a chronic cardiovascular condition that is characterized by high blood pressure. The blood pressure commonly abbreviated as BP is a measure of the force exerted on the blood vessels as the blood passes through them. The amount of blood pumped and the narrowness of ones’ vessels are directly proportional to the blood pressure (Mayoclinic staff, 2014).
As the blood is forced throughout our body, there is a pressure that is exerted on the walls of our arteries, this is known as blood pressure. We see blood pressure represented as two numbers, the systolic (top) and the diastolic (bottom) numbers. The systolic blood pressure is the heart contracting and the diastolic is the heart relaxing. A normal, healthy, blood pressure would be written as 120/80 mmHg (millimeters of mercury) or verbally expressed by most individuals as 120 over 80. Our blood pressure can vary depending on many things. When the diastolic or systolic pressure is high, or significantly and consistently above 120/80 mmHg, this is what we call hypertension. There are different stages or degrees of hypertension. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (2010) describes the stages as the following:
Blood pressure is taken in order to assess any precautions for treatment. An elevated blood pressure between the ranges of 130-139/85-89 mmHg is known as prehypertension. Prehypertension is a health concern due to an increase risk for cardiovascular disease and organ damage if continued left untreated. Cardiovascular related events associated with prehypertension include heart failure and myocardial infarction. Prehypertension can be caused by an increased amount of stress, lifestyle changes, or can be caused by a secondary disease. Factors that can influence high blood pressure include obesity, smoking, alcohol, excessive sodium intake, lack of physical activity, and diet. Secondary diseases associated with high blood pressure include diabetes mellitus and kidney disease.
High blood pressure increases your risk for heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death for both Florida and the United States (Centers for disease control, 2017). High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is known as the “silent killer” because it often has no warning signs or symptoms, and many people do not know they have it. Hypertension damages blood vessels in the organs, reducing their ability to work properly (National institute of diabetes and digestive and kidney diseases, 2016). About 1 of 3 U.S. adults—or about 75 million people—have high blood pressure. Only 54% of these people have their high blood pressure under control (Centers for disease control, 2017). Hypertension education, which focuses on controlling the disease with medication, diet, and losing weight, is important in preventing or delaying the progression of serious complications. Most people diagnosed with hypertensive disease will need to see a medical professional who will recommend lifestyle changes to help you control and prevent high blood pressure (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2006, p. 1742).
High blood pressure (hypertension ) is defined as high pressure (tension ) in the arteries , which are the vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body . High blood pressure is considered one of the highest causes of morbidity , one of the main leading causes of cardiovascular disease , and social global burden health risk factor . In addition to the high-cost burden to the global health service providers . About 70 million American adults have high blood pressure . Only about half of people with high blood pressure have their condition under control . Nearly 1 of 3 American adults has prehypertension , blood pressure numbers that are higher than normal , but not yet in the high blood pressure range . High blood pressure
According to a recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2016) report, one out of three Americans suffers hypertension (HTN), and that accounts for 75 million or 29% of the adult population in the United States (U.S). All told, hypertension costs America 48.6 billion dollars in health care expenditures, medications, and missed days of work among the American population (CDC, 2016). According to the Texas Health Data (2013), death rate among 26,448,193 residents of Texas, 170.1 deaths are related to hypertensive heart disease (HHD). The AHRQ (2013) health expenditure data demonstrates that the southern region of the United States, which includes Texas, exceeded the average health expenditure of $805 per hypertensive person.
High Blood pressure is very common; more than 50 million American adults have high blood pressure or hypertension that is one-forth of the adult population. That translate into, roughly one in every four American adult has some form of high blood pressure or they have hypertension. The segments of the population most affected by high blood pressure are males, diabetics, elderly persons, people of Hispanic origin, and people living in the southern regions of the United States. In addition, those persons with associated chronic illnesses such as emphysema; chronic stress syndrome, diabetes and similar illness are also in
Another health concern that is affect my community is hypertension. It is important to note that over 70 million people in the united states are diagnosed with high blood pressure (MacGill, 2016). And as a result, the members of the community in which one lives are not taught the importance of normalizing their blood pressure.
Approximately one in every three adult’s ages 20 years old and older are diagnosed with high blood pressure or hypertension. Hypertension affects 78 million people in the United States and is equally prevalent in both men and woman (Crabtree et al., 2013). Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (Hajjar & Kotchen, 2003). It can lead to stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, heart failure, neurological issues, and death if not detected early and not treated properly (James, Oparil, Carter, & et al., 2014). Approximately 9.4 million deaths in 2010 were attributed to high blood pressure (Angell, De Cock, & Frieden, 2015). About 54% of strokes, 47% of coronary heart disease, and 25 % of other cardiovascular diseases are attributed to high blood pressure (Arima, Barzi, & Chalmers, 2011).
Hypertension is defined a consistent elevation of the systolic blood pressure above 140mmHg, a diastolic pressure above 90mmHg or a report of taking antihypertensive medication. Early diagnosis and effective management of hypertension is essential because it is a major modifiable risk factor to cerebrovascular, cardiac, vascular, and renal diseases. The higher the blood pressure, the greater the risk for heart attack, heart failure, stroke, and kidney disease.