High Energy Level And High Levels

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High Energy Level. Trait research has found that a high energy level, physical ability and stress tolerance are associated with managerial effectiveness. A high energy level and high tolerance for stress help managers cope with the hectic pace, long hours and unrelenting demands of most managerial jobs. Physical vitality and emotional resilience make it easier to cope with stressful interpersonal situations such as a punitive boss, a troubled subordinate, an uncooperative peer or a hostile client. Effective problem solving requires an ability to remain calm and stay focused on a problem rather than panicking, denying the problem exists or attempting to shift responsibility to someone else (Bass, 1990; Howard & Bray, 1988).
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Internals have a more future-oriented perspective, plan how to accomplish objectives proactively and take initiative in discovering and solving problems. They are confident in their ability to influence people and tend to use persuasion rather than coercive or manipulative tactics to influence others (Goodstadt & Hjelle, 1973). In response to a problem, their management strategies are flexible, adaptive and innovative (Miller, Kets de Vries & Toulouse, 1982).
Emotional Stability and Maturity. Leaders with high emotional maturity are less self-centered, care about other people, have more self-control, are less impulsive and more able to resist pleasure-seeking temptations. They have more stable emotions and are not prone to extreme mood swings or outbursts of anger. They are less defensive, more receptive to criticism and more willing to learn from mistakes. They are more likely to be at a high level of cognitive moral development. Leaders with high emotional maturity maintain more cooperative relationships with subordinates, peers and superiors (Yukl, 2013, p. 141).
Power Motivation. Managers with a socialized power orientation are more emotionally mature. They exercise power more for the benefit of others, are hesitant about using power in a manipulative manner. They are less egoistic, defensive, accumulate fewer material possessions, have a longer-range view. They are more willing to take advice from people with relevant expertise. Their strong need for power is
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