Diabetes is a disease where the body is unable to produce or use insulin effectively. Insulin is needed for proper storage and use of carbohydrates. Without it, blood sugar levels can become too high or too low, resulting in a diabetic emergency. It affects about 7.8% of the population. The incidence of diabetes is known to increase with age. It’s the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the US, and is the primary cause of blindness and foot and leg amputation. It is known to cause neuropathy in up to 70% of diabetic patients. Individuals with diabetes are twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease. There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2.
Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that is affecting children and adolescents. It occurs when a child is well above the normal weight for his or her age and height and can result in serious medical conditions. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased significantly over the past ten years. Childhood diabetes has been on the rise since the early 90’s and continues to rise. In the article, “Don’t Blame the Eater” David Zinczenko, shows that “ Before 1994… only about 5 percent of childhood cases were obesity-related, or Type 2, diabetes. Today...Type 2 diabetes accounts for at least 30 percent of new childhood cases of diabetes in this country” (463). Type 2
With over 30 million people having diabetes, the prevalence is continuing to rise. An estimated 200,000 American youth are effected by type 1 diabetes and 40,000 new cases are diagnosed each year¹. The rate for type 1 diabetes in youth has increased by 1.8% each year. In comparison, the prevalence for type 2 diabetes in youth has increased at a rate of 4.8% annually². No matter whether diabetes is type 1 or type 2 in children, family involvement is essential for optimal outcomes³.
According to the United States Library of Medicine, diabetes is a disease that occurs when the body does not make or use insulin correctly, therefore causing fluctuating amounts of glucose in the blood. Diabetes is a disease that affects millions of adults and children from various cultures. According to the American Diabetes Association (2014), someone is diagnosed with diabetes every 19 seconds. The Center of Disease Control and Prevention most recent statistical report indicated there were 29.1 million adults and children affected by diabetes. Those numbers are astounding. Unfortunately, the American Diabetes Association (2014) estimates by year of 2050, one out of three adults will have diabetes. Therefore, it is imperative that adults take aggressive measures to prevent this disease. By the same token, diabetes diagnosed in children and adolescent is becoming more prevalent every day. The American Diabetes Association (2014) reported there were about 216, 00 children in the United States with diabetes. It is predicted that one out three children will be diagnosed with diabetes in their life. The statistics for both adults and children with diabetes are frightening; however, early detection can help lower the risk of developing the debilitating effects of diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes is a disease that is found in a variety of age groups around the world. This disease is growing at a rapid rate and it is impacting the health of this generation and future generations to come. Diabetes is a disease that impairs the body’s ability to produce or respond to the insulin hormone produced by the pancreas. The insulin allows for the glucose to be effectively used as energy throughout the body. Diabetes causes carbohydrates to be abnormally digested, which can raise blood glucose levels. This means that the glucose is not being taken up by the cells that need it. The cells cannot take up the excess glucose that has accumulated in the blood, so it is excreted through the urine. This can lead to problems with the kidneys, central nervous system, heart, and eyes because high blood glucose can damage the blood vessels of these organs. This diseased is managed by adopting a diet low in fat and high in fiber, increasing physical activity, losing excess weight, and not smoking. If this
Type II diabetes is a chronic medical condition that affects the way the body uses glucose. With diabetes, the body can resist the effect of insulin or fails to produce enough insulin to preserve a glucose level within normal limits. Type II diabetes is becoming much more common than before and the occurrence is growing. Approximately 23.5 million people in the United States are living with type II diabetes (Fesselle, 2010).
29 million people in the United States (9.3 percent) have diabetes, and of those 29 million approximately 7.25 million are unaware that they are diabetic (www.cdc.gov). Diabetes describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body 's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Diabetes can be divided into two groups: Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is also referred to as juvenile diabetes and is usually found in children and young adults. Only 5% of people with diabetes have this form of the disease. Type 1 diabetes restricts the body from producing insulin, a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life. Type 1 diabetes can be managed by using insulin therapy and other treatments to help those infected maintain insulin to convert sugars, starches and foods into energy(www.diabetes.org). Type 2 diabetes is the most common, people with Type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance meaning the body does not use insulin properly. At first, the pancreas makes a surplus insulin to compensate for the lack on insulin in your body. However, over time your pancreas is not able to keep up and can not make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose at normal levels(www.diabetes.org). Complications of diabetes in the long term include potential heart disease, stroke, and kidney damage.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is the most common form of diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2012). T2D is so prevalent that it is estimated to be the fifth most common cause of death worldwide (Yates, Jarvis, Troughton, and JaneDavies, 2009, p. 1). T2D manifests when the body is unable to metabolize glucose properly, resulting in elevated blood sugar, debilitating fatigue, and other serious complications such as distal limb amputations, kidney failure, and blindness. The generally accepted causes of T2D include diet, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity.
Type-2 diabetes is a concerning even more, its an increasing issue in our New Zealand community. In 2006 the Ministry of Social Development surveyed a sample of male, female adults and children to see what percentage of them were classified as obese. In 2006-2007 at least 25% of the sample of adults were classified as obese whereas 6-8% of children were also classified. By 2013/2014 there was a 3.3 percentage increase in male samples and a 2.8 percent increase in the female sample of classified obesity. The sample of children all together increased by 8.0-8.8 percent. This shows us that gradually the communities classified obesity rate is increasing. Obesity is found to be a link to increasing the risk of developing type-2 diabetes. 90% of diabetic patients are classified as obese. It is evident that as the obesity rate has raised in New Zealand so has the risk of type-2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes, diabetes mellitus, is a chronic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels in the bloodstream; usually caused by the inability of the pancreas to produce insulin or the inability of the body to use it efficiently. This condition occurs mostly in adults, but it can also appear in children, teenagers, and young adults. Considered one of the fastest growing health problems in the United States, diabetes now affects 29.1 million people, where only 21.0 million are diagnosed and 8.9 million are undiagnosed (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Dana Dabelea et. al (2014) reported that from 2001 to 2009, cases of diabetes among youth increased 35% in different regions of the United States, including California, Colorado, Ohio, South Carolina, Washington, Arizona and New Mexico. Overall, in 2010 the US Census recorded that 24.0% of the population are youth under the age of 18 from which about 0.25% of those children have been diagnosed with diabetes in 2008 and 2009 (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). More recent data indicates that the number of prevalence among youth continues to increase, and in 2014, about 20,000 children had type 2 diabetes (Narasimhan and Weinstock, 2014). Yet, even though there are still discussions on the different tools used to diagnose type 2 diabetes, it is prevalent most commonly among the minority population, but efforts to educate
Type 2 diabetes is A very prominent issue in our community, usually it is older people who get it, however it is becoming an increasing issue as younger children are getting it. “ In 1996 approximately 81,000 people in New Zealand were known to have Type 2 diabetes. By 2011, these numbers have dramatically increased to over 156,000 people in New Zealand diagnosed.” 1 Overall, diabetes is becoming a bigger and bigger threat to our community. Looking at america however it is worse, “Results from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), using measured heights and weights, indicate that an estimated 16 to 17 percent of children and adolescents ages 2 to 19 years had a BMI greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the age- and sex-specific BMI— about double the number of two decades ago.” 2 This data is effectively saying 17% of adolescents between 2 and 19 have a bmi that is 95% higher than everyone else, this means that almost ⅕ of America 's population is overweight and or obese. With more and more sugar being introduced into food, this number is increasing and if nothing is done about it it will eventually make it so it will be opposite, that only 17% of the population of people between 3 and
“A major concern at this time is the rapid climb in incidence of Type 2 diabetes, with prevalence now estimated at about 9% (18 million) of the population greater than 20 years of age.” Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are commonly associated (Gould & Dyer, 2011). In addition to the two types of diabetes, there are signs and symptoms that are easily detected and some that develop after diagnosis.
T2D is the most common type of diabetes where the body does not produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels or the insulin produced does not work effectively. According to AHA (2015), “diabetes contributes to over 230,000 U.S deaths per year” (p.1), however, many people are not aware they have the disease as it usually develops slowly over time and may already have developed health complications associated with T2D. There are non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors for T2D.
What was once thought to be found only among adults has become one of the most common chronic diseases among children in the United States. Ordinarily, when diabetes strikes during childhood it is assumed to be type 1. The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study began in 2000 and has provided the most comprehensive estimates of the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes among youth less than 20 years of age in the US (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports that annually, an estimated 18,436 youth are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, and 5,089 youth are diagnosed with type 2 among youth. In the last two decades, type 2 diabetes, has been reported among U.S. children and adolescents with increasing frequency. Disease researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention made the prediction that one in three children born in the United States in 2000 will likely develop type 2 diabetes sometime in their lifetime unless they get more exercise and improve their diets, particularly for Latino children (CDC, 2014). Without changes in diet and exercise, their odds of developing diabetes as they grow older was about 50-50.