Hildegard Peplau

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Discussion and Practical Application of Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Theory Hildegard Peplau’s Interpersonal Relations in Nursing, published in 1952, emerged before the thrust of nursing theory development. Educationally, nursing students were discouraged from theoretical learning. Nursing was not considered a profession in 1952. Rather, nurses were viewed as physician helpers, being called upon based on the physician’s assessment of the patient’s condition and the assistance deemed appropriate. Publication of Peplau’s book was delayed for four years due to concern that it was unacceptable for a nurse publish a book without a physician co-author (Vandemark, 2006). Conversely, modern nursing practice includes specific goals,…show more content…
The patient response to this phase is highly individualized and varies from full participation to autonomy to complete dependence. The patient must resolve conflicting feelings of dependence and independence through self examination and reflection. Tasks for the nurse include offering new experiences enabling the patient’s creativity and productivity. Preferred outcomes in the identification phase include clarification of the patient’s expectation of the nurse and nursing, clarifying the nurse’s expectations of the patient and his or her skills and learning, and allowing the patient to develop feelings of strength and personal power. Negative consequences include the patient expecting the nurse to meet his or her needs with nothing reciprocated in return (Hrabe, 2005). The exploitation phase is characterized by the patient taking full advantage of services offered. The patient task is balancing dependence and independence by extracting help from the available means. The nurse must understand and contemplate what causes shifts in the patient’s behavior. This phase also demands consistent maintenance of the therapeutic relationship to sustain the nurse-patient rapport already established. A patient that is comfortable with utilizing services and exploring all available possibilities is the desired outcome of this phase. In contrast, patients who exploit to dominate and or use attention
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