Hip Fractures And The Most Serious Clinical Consequence Of Osteoporosis

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Background Osteoporosis, millions of people suffered worldwide, is a condition where the amount of bone is declined but its elements remain unchanged, leading to bone fragility and fractures (Garrow, James and Ralph, 1999). Associated with morbidity and mortality (Holt et al., 2008), hip fractures are recognized as the most serious clinical consequence of osteoporosis, resulting in an increased estimated incidence from 1.26 million in 1990 to 2.6 and 4.5 million by the year of 2025 and 2050, respectively (Gullberg, Johnell and Kanis, 1997). In Europe, the direct expenditure of osteoporotic fractures health care were estimated at £21 billion in 2000 whilst according to the expected changes of European population, it was expected to rise…show more content…
However, several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) proved no evidence between CaD and risk of hip fracture (Smith et al., 2007; Law et al., 2006), suggesting that the amount recommended above could not meet the needs for the elderly. Due to prevalence in postmenopausal women and controversy mentioned above, this critical review focuses on proving relationship between different level of CaD intake and prevention of hip fracture via RCTs studies. Search strategy Pubmed and Web of Science were used in searching relevant articles with the terms ‘calcium’ and/or ‘vitamin D’, in conjunction with ‘hip fracture’. Titles and abstracts were read to select articles included relationship between dietary and hip fracture. Non-relevant articles such as education and management of post-surgery were discarded. Relevant articles should meet following criteria: a) English, b) postmenopausal women, c) RCT, d) free of osteoporosis. Most of the chosen articles were only focused on postmenopausal women, whilst the rest few ones focused on both gender. Review Fourteen studies were critically reviewed in order to check whether joint or independent effect of calcium and vitamin D on hip fracture risk or bone mineral density as a result of effect on prevention of hip fracture. Calcium alone and bone density at the hip Five RCTs studies mainly focused on the relationship between calcium and bone
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