The evolutionary path of a whale is a fascinating process of a terrestrial mammal that evolves into a marine mammal. This evolutionary path started with one of the earliest ancestors called “Pakicetus”. A Pakicetus was discovered to be a land animal with four legs that had teeth as carnivores. It skull structure was long, but this organism didn’t look like any marine animal. The scientist then discovered that on the skull’s ear region it was surrounded by a bony wall. This feature on an organism only was distinct from one type of species, scientist discovered that this animal “Pakicetus” was an ancestor of a whale. By comparing the early whales Pakicetus to the next generation of ancestors Ambulocetus, the Ambulocetus whale looks more like
Ankle bones and tarsal [foot] bones are the most diagnostic elements of the artiodactyls (Gingerich et al., 2), meaning that these bones are the most telling bones when distinguishing what group of animals a fossil may have come from. The presence of these two types of bones together in Gingerich’s discovery suggests that this primitive whale indeed could have been related to the hippopotamus. The skeletons of these animals contain similar bones; therefore both are thought to be artiodactyls. In a recent article in Science, Kenneth D. Rose, of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, says, “While ankles from primitive ancient whales have been discovered before, these are the first that are well-preserved enough to provide clues about whale ancestry” (Braun, 3). Paleontologists strongly believe that the bones of this discovery are all from the same animal. According to Gingerich, “No other mammalian specimens were found in the vicinity; all (fossils) are similar in size, color, and preservation; and no parts are duplicated” (3). Since no other animals were found in this same location, there was no chance that the discovered bones could have mixed with another fossil.
Sea-horses adapt to there environment because they like warmer water and the grass at the bottom of corals and the floor of the ocean.They like to hide in this grass , not eat it.The sea-horses like the slow moving currents because it brings these tiny little micro earth like creature through that slow moving current , and the sea-horses wait for the plankton to go by and boom there eaten.Sea-horses don't have stomachs , they turn all the food they eat into energy .Sea-horses have thick armed plates that surround there body with the protection they need to survive in there habitat.Sea-horses have camouflage so they can hide from much bigger mammals like fish,eel,and even sharks. The sea-horses learn to adapt to there surroundings,they learn
One way that sea horses have been able to adapt is their hard scales. Their scales keep them protected from hard hits and of course almost getting a big bite taken out of them. If something does try to take a bite it won't do anything because of how non-tender they are. It states in paragraph 4, sentence 3, that," This makes them less than tender snacks for most predators."
As a human get older, many of the organs will deteriorate and lost the functions. Out of all of the organs, our brains are extremely vulnerable to the process of aging. In the article of “Young blood reverses age-related impairments in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in mice”, the researchers leaded by Saul Villeda in University of California, San Francisco, focus on the study of physical and functional property of the hippocampus in mice. Hippocampus manages the learning and memory process. However, it is extremely sensitive to aging and shows many down regulations as the brain ages. The study had also revealed the important role of Creb, which maintain hippocampus properly functional and healthy. Two different assays were used to study the role of Creb in the cognitive function and synaptic plasticity which includes testing hippocampus-related memorizing and learning processes and measuring the dendritic spine number and synaptic plasticity.
Some ways in which sea horses have adapted to better survive in their habitats. One of their abilities that can help them survive is their ability to camouflage and hide from their predators. The second thing is that they don’t have scales they have bony plates. The final thing is that they have special senses.
Loss means to lose something. Someone could lose their keys or wallet, or they could lose something very close to themselves. In the book, A Place Where the Sea Remember, Marta and Caesar has to deal with loss. I will talk about what Marta and Caesar looses that so close to them.
Accumulating evidence has shown that age-related episodic memory differences are closely associated with the development of hippocampal subregions. In particular, area CA1 is believed to play a significant role in the encoding of related experience. Prior work has pointed out that memory integration occurs during the encoding of two related events. Previous studies have also suggested that the developmental changes in CA1 volume are related to the improvement in associative inference from childhood to adulthood. However, it remains an open question whether contextual information of two related episodes will influence memory integration and the ability to make associative inference. Also, little is known about whether this impact changes
Did you know that seahorses are the only members of the Hippocampus species? The name Hippocampus is Greek, it means “Horse Sea Monster.” There are thirty-four different species of seahorses. Many people are surprised when they find out that seahorses are a type of fish. They have fins and gills, the defining features of a fish. When seahorses are in a group they are called a herd, just like horses. Seahorses usually live one to five years, but they are becoming endangered because their habitat is slowly being destroyed. “Seahorses can be as small as one inch long and as tall as twelve inches long!”(Trisha Shaskan, page 23) Seahorses are not alone though, the Syngnathidae family also includes pipefish and seadragons. Syngnathidae means fused jaw.
The OED defines multitasking as dealing with more than one task at the same time. The brain, in order to multitask, must receive both actions being performed, and dilute the information before processing. In order to read and listen to something at the same time, for an example, the brain must take the information being read by the eyes and the pulses coming from the ears, and reduce the frequency to keep both tasks going efficiently.
A seahorse is a fish that lives under water. Seahorses prey on plankton and shrimp. Seahorse’s predators are penguins and stingrays. Seahorses are fish although they are bad swimmers. They are also very small. The male seahorse is equipped with a pouch on the ventral or front-facing, side of the tail and this is why seahorses are called seahorses. Seahorses are mainly found in shallow tropical and temperate waters throughout the world. From about 45 degrees south to 45 degrees north and live in sheltered areas such sea grass beds, estuaries, coral reefs, or mangroves. Four species are found in pacific water from North America to South America. These areas are seahorse’s habitat. When the fry, or baby seahorse, are ready to be born, the male
The ocean is a very beautiful place. It consist of various different types of creatures and plants. 70% of the earth is made up of the ocean, with an average depth of 12, 400 ft. We have only explored less than 5% of the ocean. The ocean has a 17 °C (62.6* F) temperature, and has a latitude of 14.5994 °s and longitude of 28.6731 °w. The deepest part of the ocean is the Mariana Trench, which is about 36,000 ft. Photons (light) can’t go more than 330 ft below the water’s surface. 94% of life on Earth is aquatic, one living in a pond or aquarium. All the creatures of the sea must survive harsh conditions, predators, lack of oxygen, too much pressure, scares food, lack of sunlight, and extremely cold parts of the ocean. Certain types of plants,
Early investigations of the role of the hippocampus in social memory involved lesions to the brain areas that project to and from the hippocampus. One of such areas is medial septum, which has strong reciprocal projections to and from hippocampal formation (McNaughton & Miller 1984; Alonso & Köhler 1984; Chandler & Crutcher 1983). It has been shown that vincristine-induced lesions to the medial septum impairs social memory (Terranova et al. 1994; Fournier et al. 1993). Similarly, transection of the fimbria, which carries multiple projections to and from the hippocampus (Wyss et al. 1980; Cassel et al. 1997) also impairs social recognition memory (Maaswinkel et al. 1996). (but see also Petrulis et al. 2000)
The hippocampus has been known to be the storage center for learning and memory in the brain (Wirsching et al., 1984). The mapping theory developed by O’Keefe and Nadel (1978) and O’Keefe and Conway (1980) proposed that there is a relationship between the hippocampus and storing spatial information, which allows animals to map out the surrounding area and locate itself in proportion to its surroundings.