The dependent variable is pulsation rates of L. variegatus before and after they were in the treatments. The standardized variable of this experiment would be the temperature of the surroundings of the L. variegatus, the three pulsation rates taken for each worm before and after the treatments, and also the amount of time each worm was kept in their respective treatments. The level of treatment for this experiment would be ten because of the six different concentration treatments of caffeine and nicotine along with the four household drugs. The sample size of the experiment differed from some treatments to other. For the three different concentrations of caffeine and nicotine, the sample size was 18 black worms each. The sample size of the control treatment of week 1 was 6 black worms. 12 black worms were used for the control of week 2, decaffeinated coffee and instant coffee. 11 black worms were used for the tea treatment and 15 were used for the tobacco treatment. There were three replications of the pulsation rate readings per worm before and after the treatment. With all this information we were able to get the results we got.
The lab handout provided by the instructor was used as a guideline to conduct this experiment. The only difference was the organism used and data collection period. For this experiment, pill bugs and crickets were utilized. Also, data was collected for a period of 12 minutes.
Freeman (2008) furthers Eckert et al’s argument by stating that the actin filaments of the muscle cell in organisms are able to intake ATP (adenosine triphosphate) faster and will move the organism faster when higher temperatures are imposed. This is because of an increase in enzyme reaction rates (Freeman 2008). These arguments can be applied to our experiment to help explain the trends observed. It can be argued that as the Gammarus setosus experiences the cold treatments, the organ of Bellonci senses the cold temperature, which in turn signals the organism to preserve its energy to protect itself; therefore, the organism will swim slower. In addition, the enzymes in the muscle cells of the organism, when experiencing the cold treatments, will have decreased ability to carry out enzymatic reactions, therefore inhibiting the uptake of ATP, which will cause the organism to swim slowly. Conversely, as the organisms are put into the heated treatments, the organ of Bellonci senses the heat, and allows the organism to swim faster, since it does not have allocate as much of its energy towards survival. Furthermore, the enzymes in the cells will be able to catalyze reactions more quickly, therefore allowing the organism to swim faster. However, when the temperature of the surroundings is too high, the enzymes will denature, therefore, reducing the activity rate of
direct calorimetry. Furthermore, the amount of oxygen in the chamber reveals the amount of cellular respiration of the organism. While also, test the effects of decreasing oxygen, and later increasing the heat on the metabolic rate of goldfish. I hypothesize that an increase in temperature will increase their metabolic rate
Ectotherm processes, such as in crickets, will greatly depend on the temperature of their external source. Endotherms have the ability to maintain their constant body temperature in a wide range of environmental temperatures (Geiser 2004). When conditions become colder, they are able to raise their metabolic rate and produce more heat. If the temperature increases, they can decrease their metabolic rate and release heat through sweating and vasodilatation.
The containers were plastic and 18 by 15 by 6 centimeters long. Prior to the experiment being performed, the crickets had spent a week in these residencies. Along with the crickets in the plastic containers, there was wet pieces of paper towel and a slice of carrot.
The pill bugs were moving more in hot environment than cold temperature and room temperature. The pill bugs made more turning in room temperature than cold and hot environment. The pill bugs made more rounds in room temperature than cold and hot environment. The hypothesis was that pill bugs will react more in moisture or humid environment that others. Based on our result, the hypothesis will be rejected. The reason why the result was not accurate can be due to limitation or errors during the experiment. The fact that the same pill bugs were used for the three trials can be considered as an error because bugs might be tired after the first trial. In future the experiment, different bugs should be used in each trial. Another error can be the condensation that occurred during the heating process. A wet paper was placed in the Petri dish. During the heating process, the water evaporated and since the petri dish was covered with led, the vapor is transformed to water, however, pill bugs do not live in water. In the future experiment, the petri dish should be kept open to avoid the
The CO2 is believed to reduce the PH level of the flies, which causes them to fall into an induced sleep. Regulating the control of CO2 flow was adjusted through a CO2 valve on the lab bench and FlowBuddy device. The anesthetic was manually set at 5L/min and delivered to the flies though a small devise resembling a hot glue gun, and a surface pad which diffused CO2 though small pores. While properly holding the vial at an angle of 70-80 degrees, the acetate plug was rotated and loosened. This allowed room for the tip of the gun to enter into the vial and release CO2. The flow of the anesthetic into the vile was administered for 5-15 seconds while gently pressing the gun trigger. Flies immediately fell to the top of the vile, the plug was removed, flies were placed on the surface pad for observation, the plug was immediately placed back on the vial, and the vial was placed on its side incase flies were still asleep in the
Larvae can form feeding masses on a corpse and can generate an enormous amount of heat. They develop slower at lower temperatures and more rapidly at higher temperatures because metabolic rate is more active at higher temperatures and slower at lower temperatures. As larvae are poikilothermic (cold-blooded) the major factor which can increase the metabolic activity of them is external temperature.
Ectothermic animals are animals whose body temperature is affected by their surroundings. This means that if the environment is cold the animal will be cold. If the environment is warm the animal will be warm. This is because the animal doesn’t have the capability of regulating its body systems to keep a constant body temperature. When an ectothermic animal is cold, its heart rate will lower. When the animal is warmer, the heart rate will raise – as long as the temperature isn’t sufficiently high to harm the animal. (Campbell, 2005)
The purpose of this lab is to analysis goldfish an ectothermic animal affect toward different temperature ranges. The reactions toward the temperatures are taken upon the term of homeostasis, which is regulation for organisms to maintain a steady state while adapting to the conditions that are favorable for survival (Encyclopedia Britannica). In order to achieve a successful homeostasis, many animals use different methods of thermoregulation, which helps maintain the internal temperature of animals. Many methods vary whether the organisms is an endotherm or ectoderm. An endotherm, which includes mammals and birds, is a warm-blooded animal, which maintains a constant body temperature not influenced by the environment (Britannica).
Daphnia magna, arthropods of the subphylum Crustacea, are widely used during laboratory experiments because they are very sensitive to many environmental parameters including temperature and chemical contaminants (Cornell, 2009). In this experiment, Daphnia magna were tested under different experimental factors, including temperature changes and exposure to different chemical, in order to observe the effect of environmental conditions on their heart rate.
Somewhat more precise descriptions can be made by using the terms poikilothermic and homoiothermic. The body temperature of poikllotherms is relatively variable, while that of homeotherms is relatively constant.
An unknown sample was massed and put into three test tubes for three different trials. A gas transfer assembly was put together and hydrochloric acid was added to each sample in each test tube. A reaction between the carbonate sample and the acid occurred and the volume of carbon dioxide gas produced was recorded. This process was repeated three times. The mass