Historical Development of Security Forces and Policy Making in Crime

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Historical Development of Security Forces: The historical development of security forces and policy-making in crime and justice from civilization period to the establishment of contemporary nation-states and governments mainly involves the evolution of law and legal structures. Some of the various codes of law and justice that have been promulgated at different periods of history include: The Code of Hammurabi: This is the earliest code of written and public laws that was developed in Babylonia approximately 2,000 years before Christ. While this ancient legal code was promulgated by Emperor Hammurabi, it was popularly accepted as a law of divine origin that helped reinforce its legitimacy. Since it dealt with various aspects, the Code of Hammurabi established the idea of restorative and retributive justice (Shahidullah, 2008, p. 3). Draco's Law: This code of law was originally written by an Athenian legislator as a strict legal code for Greece around 621 B.C. Draco's law stated that it was the state's responsibility to punish offenders instead of private citizens as many people were sentenced to death for crimes. Law of the Twelve Tables: The introduction of the Twelve Tables around 450 B.C. was the most significant ancient legal code of the Roman Law. The development of this law involved 10 Roman men who had total control in writing laws to govern Roman citizens (Limbaugh, 2010). Based on the concept of safeguarding the lower class from political elites, the law

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