History of Autism, ASD, and AD

1632 WordsJun 20, 20187 Pages
History of Autism, ASD, and AD Leo Kanner, a doctor at Johns Hopkins Hospital and the first self-described child-psychiatrist, first described what we now know to be autism in his 1943 paper titled, "Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact." He described a disorder similar to, but distinct from childhood schizophrenia. Autism, taken from symptoms of schizophrenia, described withdrawn symptoms or social interaction problems, and was included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Ed. (DSM-III) under the name Infantile Autism in 1980. This was later changed to autism in the revised DSM-III in 1987. The authors indicated that some camps still considered autism a schizophrenic disorder, and that infantile autism…show more content…
In contrast, the proposed DSM-V criterion divides seven symptoms of ASD into two main groups: deficits in social communication and social interaction; and restricted, repetitive behaviors, and interests. Some have questioned the nature and magnitude of the proposed modifications to the diagnostic criteria, fearing that some individuals with autism may be unrecognized or misdiagnosed under the new manual (Matson et al, 2012). When the revised DSM-III reduced the diagnostic subgroups to autistic disorder and PDD-NOS, changing the criteria for autistic disorder required the presence of at least 8 of 16 specific behavioral examples, with at least two from the social interaction domain, one from the communication domain, and one from the restricted behaviors domain, studies found that a significant number of individuals did not meet DSM-III criteria but did meet DSM-III-R criteria (Miller et al, 2013). The DSM-IV outlined the 12 general criteria for Autistic disorder and required that at least six be met for a diagnosis of autism. The wording of DSM-IV, which was not changed for DSM-IV-TR, criteria could have a wider interpretation than earlier versions. Furthermore, DSM-IV included Asperger disorder, which could be met if Autistic disorder had been ruled out but social impairments and restricted behaviors were present in a verbal individual with at least average intelligence. Rett’s Disorder and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder were also new
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