History of Globallization

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History of Globalization Estle Harlan Harlan Business Consultants Tim Rahschulte, Ph.D., Professor George Fox University

Abstract The historical context of globalization covers centuries. This paper divides those centuries into three eras. The first era covers the fifteenth through eighteenth centuries and views globalization through the lens of individuals who struggled to overcome natural, governmental, religious and economic barriers in their quest for wealth, freedom, position, and power. Throughout this era, the world of commerce was encumbered by territorial boundaries. The second era covers the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and saw great technological advances in transportation, machinery, livability, and communication. This
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United States to the Pacific Ocean.

        plow. 

1825 The world’s first passenger railroad began to operate in England. 1834 Cyrus McCormick (U.S.) patented a harvesting machine. 1838 Louis Jacques Daguerre (France) made a daguerreotype photograph. 1839 Baseball was first played at Cooperstown, New York. 1840 Charles Darwin (U.K.) published Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle. 1840 The penny post was introduced in Britain. 1844 Samuel F.B. Morse sent the first message over telegraph lines. 1846 Elias Howe (U.S.) invented the sewing machine; John Deere (U.S.) invented the 1847 Gold was discovered in California. This list is not all-encompassing, but it is significantly representative of the nature of

(Hoffman, Ed., 1987, p. 474; Presence, Ed., 1978, p. 306-336; Safra, Ed., 2010, p.518). events that caused Marx (1848) to express the existence of territorial compression. That expression was the forerunner for Robertson’s (1992) discussion of global compression, with his definition of globalization being: “The compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole….Concrete global interdependence and consciousness of the global whole in the twentieth century” (p. 8). When Marx (1848) spoke of territorial compression, he was referencing the advances in transportation, machinery, communication devices, economic and cultural knowledge, social and societal connections, and geographical discoveries. When Robertson
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