History of Guidance Movement

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History of Guidance Movement


The history of school counseling around the world varies greatly based on how different countries and local communities have chosen to provide academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social skills and competencies to K-12 children and their families based on economic and social capital resources and public versus private educational settings in what is now called a school counseling program.
In the United States, the school counseling profession began as a vocational guidance movement at the beginning of the 20th century. Jesse B. Davis is considered the first to provide a systematic school guidance program. In 1907, he became the principal of a high school and encouraged the
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School Guidance

 1962 - The work of C. Gilbert Wrenn, including his book The Counselor in a Changing World, brought to light the need for more cultural sensitivity on the part of school counselors.

 1960s - Frederick Perl 's gestalt therapy - William Glasser 's reality therapy - Abraham Maslow and Rollo May 's existential approach - John Krumboltz 's behavioral counseling approach

National Defense Education Act of 1958

 National Defense Education Act of 1958: This was the government’s response to Sputnik. The act provided for resources to determine which youths of America had mathematical and scientific talent that could be nurtured for use in the American space program.
 Soviet Union 's launching of Sputnik I and fears that other countries were outperforming the United States in the fields of mathematics and science.


Guidance and counseling, concept that institutions, especially schools, should promote the efficient and happy lives of individuals by helping them adjust to social realities. The disruption of community and family life by industrial civilization convinced many that guidance experts should be trained to handle problems of individual adjustment. Though the need for attention to the whole individual
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