History of Internet

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Steps Toward Modern Computing 31 First Steps: Calculators 31 The Technological Edge: Electronics 31 Putting It All Together: The ENIAC 36 The Stored-Program Concept 36 The Computer’s Family Tree 37 The First Generation (1950s) 37 The Second Generation (Early 1960s) 38 The Third Generation (Mid-1960s to Mid-1970s) 39 The Fourth Generation (1975 to the Present) 41 A Fifth Generation? 44 The Internet Revolution 45 Lessons Learned 48

After reading this module, you will be able to: 1. Define the term “electronics” and describe some early electronic devices that helped launch the computer industry. 2. Discuss the role that the stored-program concept
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A calculator is a machine that can perform arithmetic functions with numbers, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

The Technological Edge: Electronics
Today’s computers are automatic, in that they can perform most tasks without the need for human intervention. They require a type of technology that was unimaginable in the nineteenth century. As Figure 1B.1 shows, nineteenth-century inventor Charles Babbage came up with the first design for a



Steps Toward Modern Computing: A Timeline

quipa (15th and 16th centuries) At the height of their empire, the Incas used complex chains of knotted twine to represent a variety of data, including tribute payments, lists of arms and troops, and notable dates in the kingdom’s chronicles.

( abacus (4000 years ago to 1975) Used by merchants throughout the ancient world. Beads represent figures (data); by moving the beads according to rules, the user can add, subtract, multiply, or divide. The abacus remained in use until a worldwide deluge of cheap pocket calculators put the abacus out of work, after being used for thousands of years.


Jacquard 's loom (1804) French weaver Joseph-Marie Jacquard creates an automatic, programmable weaving machine that creates fabrics with richly detailed patterns. It is controlled by means of punched cards. Pascal’s calculator (1642) French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal, the son of an accountant, invents
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