Hiv/Aids South Africa

5278 Words Oct 15th, 2008 22 Pages
The HIV/AIDS Epidemic
In South Africa
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of many infectious diseases that plague the world today. According to the 2007 AIDS epidemic update put out by The United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS (UNIADS) there were approximately 2.1 million AIDS related deaths and 33.2 million people infected with HIV world wide (UNAIDS/WHO Working Group, 2007). Despite its abundant resources and its well-developed financial sectors, South Africa has the largest HIV infected population in the world with approximately 5.7 million of its 44 million citizens living with HIV/AIDS (Global Health Facts, 2007). These 5.7 million cases alone account for over 28% of
…show more content…
During the attachment phase, HIV binds itself to a CD4 receptor sites on a CD4 + cell. Once this initial binding takes place, the virus then beings to bind with near by chemokine coreceptors which then bind with glycoproteins. These chemokine coreceptors and glycoproteins bound to the virus make up what is called a viral enveloped peptide. The viral enveloped peptide then fuses itself to the CD4+ cell releasing the virus inside the cell. Once the virus is inside the cell, it then releases two strands of viral RNA that then begins the process of reverse transcriptase within the cell.
During reverse transcriptase, a mirror image of the single stranded viral RNA is produced and then fused together with its counterpart to make up double stranded viral DNA that can now infiltrate the nucleus of the infected CD4+ cell. Once the virus is inside the nucleus, it inserts itself into the infected CD4+ cells’ DNA so that it can begin the replication process. Transcription then takes place, transforming the double stranded virally infected DNA into single stranded messenger RNA (mRNA), that now contain the blueprint for the new viruses. The single stranded viral mRNA then pairs up with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to create what is called a polyprotein chain. The polyprotein chain is then cut and separated into several single proteins that make up new viruses. These newly formed viruses are then distributed throughout the bloodstream to attack other CD4+ cells by exiting its host
Open Document