Hiv And Aids : Hiv / Aids

924 Words May 15th, 2016 4 Pages
2.1 HIV/AIDS
HIV is a latent virus that attacks and compromises the immune system and exposes the body to diseases and infections. AIDS is a disease of the immune system caused by a retrovirus known as HIV that makes the individual highly vulnerable to life threatening infections and diseases such as TB (FANTA, 2004).
2.1.1 TRANSMISSION OF HIV
According to FANTA, there are three primary routes of HIV transmission;
1) Unprotected sex with a person carrying the HIV virus.
2) Transfusion of contaminated blood and its by products or use of non sterilized instruments.
3) Mother to child transmission during pregnancy, child birth or breastfeeding.
In most of the developing countries, HIV is transmitted primarily through sexual contact. Biologically, women are at a greater risk of HIV infection as opposed to men.
2.2 PREVALENCE OF HIV/AIDS 2.2.1 GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE
In 2013, an estimated 35 million (33.2 million-37.2 million) people were living with HIV (UNAIDS, 2014). According to the UNAIDS fact sheet 2014, new HIV infections have fallen by 38% since 2001. Worldwide, 2.1 million (1.9 million-2.4 million) people became newly infected with HIV in 2013, down from 3.4 million (3.3 million-3.6 million) in 2001. The number of AIDS related deaths has fallen by 35% since the peak in 2005. In 2013, 1.5 million (1.4 million-1.7 million) people died from AIDS related causes worldwide compared to 2.4 million (2.2- 2.6 million) in 2005 (UNAIDS, 2014).
Since the beginning of the epidemic,…

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