Various studies show evidence that link the relationship between social determinants of health and the risk for HIV. Interrelated social determinants of health can create a context of vulnerability and risk for HIV. It is very important to be able to recognize the interrelation components of HIV risk in order determine the HIV prevention response that is the most effective. For instance, research shows that HIV rates are significantly higher in Black men who have sex with men (MSM) than for MSM of other races. These rates, which are very disproportionate, are not attributable to a higher frequency of sexual risk behaviors. To appropriately address risk for MSM of different races, it is imperative to understand the process of disease transmission among these populations, in other words, the social determinants of health that are involved, such as access to healthcare (CHLA, 2012).
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS is a pandemic problem affecting global health. At the end of 2015, 36.7 million people were living with HIV/AIDS globally. The rate of incidence is more prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa with almost 1 in every 24 adults living with HIV/AIDS. In the united states, HIV/AIDS is a diversified health problem affecting all sexes, ages and races and involving the transmission of multiple risk behavior. However, with the introduction of various prevention programs and antiretroviral drugs, the incidence of HIV/AIDS has reduced.
The social determinants of health are the circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. Social determinants for HIV would be in the poor black community where people are unable to afford condoms, new needles and are uneducated in this disease. The epidemiologic triangle is a model that scientists have developed for studying health problems and how they spread. The epidemiologic triangle of this disease would be the host (the human), environment (which tends to be lower income black community’s) and agent (HIV).
The HIV/AIDS epidemic poses a major concern for global health. There are approximately 36.7 million people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide (WHO, 2017). Due to the increased phenomenon of global migration and movement we see a proportion of individuals who are HIV positive migrating. In Canada alone, over 300,000 new immigrants were welcomed into the country in 2016 (CIC; Globe And Mail, 2016). As a result we can infer that certain proportion out of all immigration applicants into Canada were HIV positive, therefore this paper seeks to question if it is easier or more difficult to be accepted as a immigrant into Canada if you are HIV positive? In addition, under what circumstances are individuals who are HIV positive admissible into Canada,
The AIDS epidemic, from its beginning, has elicited a variety of responses from individuals and governments alike. Because the disease was originally shrouded in such mystery, many did not know how to react, which fostered a default fear of the unknown response. This attitude lead to many governments adopting a denialist policy, countless individuals living and eventually dying alone due to an unwillingness to report their illness for fear of consequence or prejudice, and this allowed the HIV virus flourish. Several countries responded efficiently and effectively to the presence of the HIV virus in their midst, while other countries maintained an attitude of ignorance. The latter position contributed to a huge expanse of the HIV epidemic
HIV/AIDs is a huge epidemic still plaguing society today. The lack of knowledge and technical advances has caused an increasing number of cases. It has made its way around the world since the 1940s, causing countries to join together in the fight against AIDs. With all the campaigning that has been done the numbers of cases continue to rise. Countries have separated the disease into three patterns to make it easier to distinguish the effects that AIDs has on different regions of the world. As well as what subtypes sprout from what areas. HIV/AIDs can be spread in many different ways. The future is still uncertain for the victims whom lives have been dramatically changed by this deadly disease.
Haiti was able to dramatically reduce its high rates of HIV/AIDS prevalence in the face of low socioeconomic development and declining Gross National Income (GNI) per capita because its existing NGO-based system for HIV/AIDS prevention was scaled up through international technical and financial assistance. The two leading NGOs in this effort, Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi’s Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO) and Partners in Health (PIH), were created at the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the early 1980s, but initially focused their efforts on treating the side-effects of the epidemic due to a lack of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV/AIDS thus spread rapidly amongst the population, reaching a peak incidence rate of 4% in the 1990s, and it was not until the early 2000s, when the organizations gained access to antiretroviral drugs through international assistance, that HIV/AIDS prevalence rates began their decline.
In the article “Applying public health principles to the (HIV) epidemic” I learned that the HIV virus is spread by people who do not know that they are infected. This article argues that it is time to find a comprehensive public health method that will help stopped this epidemic from spreading even more. This article also talks about the ways HV is transmitted and what can we do to protect ourselves from this virus. It took two decades for the United States to figure out a plan to report HIV cases. Now the best thing we can do is come up with a plan to make people aware of this virus so that it will not kill thousands of people in the next decade. We should improve the community and counseling of individual patients to prevent transmission. Also let the virus be talked about in schools and ask parents to explain this as well. Supporting patients with the virus understand how important it is to return to care and take all appointments seriously, and improving the availability of effective treatment could further reduce transmission. In the United States, if scientist come up with a plan; and educate more people we might have the potential to prevent at least half of all cases of HIV infection each year.”
Globally, there is good news. In 2011 the World Health Organization (WHO) claimed that the HIV/AIDs epidemic was declining in their “Global HIV/AIDS Response” progress report (Progress Report 2011). Each continent and region, however, showed different changes in their rates of HIV/AIDS (Progress Report 2011). In North America, and specifically in the United States, the incidence of HIV has been constant for the past several years (Progress Report 2011). Despite the stability of this disease, the proportions of who is becoming infected are alarming (Progress Report 2011).
The existing literature on Global Health suggests that amid the spread of globalization, improvements in human health have been made over the last fifty years, but the disappearance of transnational borders has also created health risks at the international level. Research on the topic of global health indicates that real world occurrences have provoked the perceived need for cooperation in the international health sector (Skolnik 2012, pg. 336-342). Disease are not confined by state boundaries and this has led to several health issues that paradigmatically shifted international health into global health. One of the most noted events that brought attention to global health includes the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This pandemic illustrates one of the most significant challenges facing global health today-- the spread of infectious diseases caused by global factors. The movement of goods and services, and the growth of international trade have increased human mobility, thus mobilizing disease and infections as well. Current research analyzes how international trade, economic development, cultural exchanges, and human movement and travel have contributed to the prevention and control of infectious disease such as HIV, malaria, SARS, etc. (Knobler, Mahmoud 2006). The disparities between public health in developed and undeveloped nations has not been explored fully in the discipline of Global Health. By exploring historical trends of global health, this paper will attempt to theorize how
Human Immunodeficiency Virus is one of the growing illnesses becoming very common today. The acronym for this virus is HIV. More than 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV and almost 1 out of 8 are unaware of this infection. There are over 50,000 new infections per year. It has impacted our society greatly. In 2010, President Obama made the National HIV/AIDS Strategy. It really affects the youth of the African American culture especially men who have sex with men. By race, African Americans have the biggest burden with HIV. The average survival time of having this disease is 9 to 11 years; depending on the HIV subtype. In 2010, a study also found that wealth determines vulnerability to this disease. HIV was found four
Although HIV/AIDS is on the rise together, we can put an end to the increasing numbers. Globally HIV/AIDS is growing rapidly by the end of 2015 the number of people infected and diagnosed could beat any of the previous year’s records. Shockingly enough, this statistic even stands true for our home state Kansas. These numbers may be rising because more people want to know their statuses and are becoming aware of the dangers hidden in this deadly virus. On the other hand, people may be living more risky life styles, foolishly thinking they are above catching HIV. Regardless of the reason, the numbers are too high when the quantity of new cases should be actively decreasing.
As an upper-middle income country with high spending on healthcare, South Africa has been performing poorly on certain health indicators (as seen in Table 1), with their biggest issue being in the fight against HIV/AIDS (Country and Lending Groups, n.d.). They have one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS in the world at 19.1%, and the incidence of new cases is increasing steadily (Milan, 2014; CIA, n.d.). To combat this growing problem President Jacob Zuma launched the largest HIV Counseling and Testing campaign in the world in April 2010 (“Global AIDS”, 2012). In the same year, the country also achieved a significant reduction in the price of antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) (“Global AIDS”, 2012). Despite this progress, these
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a public health epidemic that affects millions of people around the world. As technology and medical advances have been made, many people affected by HIV in developed countries are able to sustain relatively normal lifestyles. Unfortunately, of the 36.9 million people living with HIV, 22 million still need to be reached with proper antiretroviral therapy treatment, preventative education, and supportive programs (UNAIDS, 2015). Most of the people that still need to be reached reside in developing countries and do not have the same means and resources to access to HIV prevention and treatment as those in developed countries. Many developing countries are dependent on outside sources to help educate,