Hofstede S Cultural Dimensions

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Growth of research addressing the relationship between culture and consumption is exponential. Thus, culture’s influence on consumption and marketing had drawn increasing attention in recent years. Hofstede’s framework is the most widely used national cultural framework in psychology, sociology, marketing and management studies. His dimensions were all constructed in such a way that they addressed basic problems that all societies have to deal with. Thus, these dimensions of national culture were constructed at the national level namely:
PDI: Power Distance Index
IDV: Individualism versus collectivism
MAS: Masculinity versus Femininity
UAI: Uncertainty Avoidance Index
In 1991, a fifth dimension has been added – LTO – Long Term versus
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The third dimension is MAS, where masculinity cultures such as Japan, Austria, Venezuela value achievement and success; whereas femininity cultures such as Sweden and Norway stress caring for others, interpersonal relationships and quality of life. Regarding the MAS index, Crotts and Erdmann (2000) found visitors from less masculine cultures to be less critical and forgiving when evaluating travel services compared with visitors from more masculine cultures, who are more assertive and judgmental and evaluate airline service quality less positively and are less loyal to airlines.

UAI reflects the extent to which people feel threatened by uncertainty or ambiguity and try to avoid these situations. Money and Crotts (2003) found that visitors from high uncertainty-avoidance cultures (e.g. Greece) engage in significantly more risk- or uncertainty-reducing behaviors such as purchasing more often prepaid tour packages, travel in larger groups, stay for shorter periods, and visit fewer destinations than their low uncertainty-avoidance German counterparts when traveling internationally.

LTO refers to the preference for instant reward versus delayed reward. Countries such as Taiwan, Japan, South Korea are long term orientated and stress thrift, hard work, dedication and savings. On the other hand, cultures such as Pakistan are short term orientated that focus on tradition and social obligations.

IND refers to the extent to which
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