Homeostasis In The Human Body

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Homeostasis is a healthy state that is maintained by the constant adjustment of biochemical and physiological pathways in the human body where a human is able to maintain stability, equilibrium and consistency needed to carry out its normal reactions. An example of homeostasis in humans is the maintenance of blood glucose levels which are maintained through the endocrine and nervous systems. Glucose is a monosaccharide sugar and is the only sugar found in the blood as fructose and galactose are absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and is converted into glucose in the liver. Glucose is used by virtually all cells, including neurons (nerve cells) for cellular respiration. This sugar needs to be present in the blood at all times to fuel…show more content…
When blood-glucose levels rise, there is an increase in soluble glucose molecules in the blood and is detected by the beta cells of the pancreas in the islets of Langerhans of the endocrine tissue. Beta cells respond to hyperglycaemic stimuli by producing a hormone called insulin which stimulates cells, especially adipose and muscle cells, to take up soluble glucose molecules from the blood. Insulin is a short protein consisting of a string of amino acids with a particular shape. Insulin responds to this hyperglycaemic change by converting individual glucose molecules to form polysaccharide molecules called glycogen, which is stored in the liver and muscles and triggering glucose transporter molecules to gate glucose into the cell.[1] This process is called glycogenesis. Beta cells are the only cells in the body that produce insulin that enters the bloodstream straight away. The stored insoluble glycogen causes the amount of glucose present in the bloodstream to decrease and therefore insulin has a hypoglycaemic effect on the body. The mitochondria of cells require glucose to drive cellular processes such as muscle movement, and the glucose metabolized
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