How Annual Planetary Albedo Is Affected By The Forcing Boundary Conditions
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In this section, we will look at how each factor was affected by the forcing boundary conditions set in the six experiments we ran. The results section will be organized in sections by factor.
Annual Planetary Albedo
First we will address results about how annual planetary albedo was affected by altering the forcings in the simulations. Overall, when comparing Control Experiment (Modern Specified SST) to Primary Experiment 3 (Ice Age 21kya run), we observed a relatively higher planetary albedo during the Last Glacial Maximum, with an average of 2.37% increase. In areas with known ice sheets, such as the Laurentide Ice Sheet over the upper section of North America or the Scandinavian Ice Sheet over Northern Europe, there was a much more drastic change in albedo. In these regions, the albedo was significantly higher during the LGM, up to 27% higher in certain areas. Albedo was also higher south of the equator in the oceans surrounding the Antarctic. Some parts of the earth had a near-neutral change in planetary albedo, mostly in low latitude areas like the tropics. This can be seen in Figure 1. When put side by side, Figure 1 shows little resemblance to Figure 2, the map comparing annual planetary albedo of Primary Experiment 1 and the Control Experiment. This comparison shows little to no consistent change in albedo between the two eras, with a planetary average change of 0.02%. There are clusters of regions with a very high increase in albedo between the modern