How Are Culture and Leadership Linked Essay

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1799 1799 ‘How are the concepts of culture and leadership linked?’ Introduction: This literature review will make use of four pieces of academic work to discuss how the concept of culture can intrinsically affect leadership. The literature finds that the link between culture and leadership is an important, yet complicated relationship. I will begin by discussing and defining the central concepts of culture and leadership. I will then explain and analyse the significance of culture upon leadership. Finally I will review Hofstede’s cultural framework to assess its significance and relevance to the topic at hand. Culture: To begin, culture is a phenomenon that carries multiple definitions. A simplistic view sees it as “how…show more content…
Some leaders skills and styles may be perfect in one nation and ineffectual in another (Shanthi, 2009). Indeed, it is not inaccurate to say that cultural sensitivity is the most important trait for leaders to have, given the globalisation of our modern world (Wharton University, 1999). The idea of culture being the central idealism as to why leaders act the way they do in certain environments is linked to Contingency Theory. This theory stipulates that a leader needs to be able to adapt to the context they face (King and Lawley, 2013). Hofstede’s framework Geert Hofstede believed that national cultures were potentially homogenous with organisational cultures, and that national cultures could be quantitatively identified and compared (King and Lawley, 2013). Hofstede over a four-year period carried out 116,000 morale surveys, from 72 countries, using IBM subsidiaries (Kirkman, Lowe and Gibson, 2006) and from his findings derived a four fold dimensional framework for measuring national cultures. His first dimension, Power Distance, is the extent to which people within a nation are accepting of the unequal distribution of power within institutions and organisations (Hofstede, 1980). This dimension also helps to explain the way in which leaders and subordinates interact and under what pretences (King and Lawley, 2013). His second dimension is Uncertainty Avoidance, which measures the
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