After the positions were recorded for frequencies 1,803 Hz, 2,402 Hz, 3,002 Hz, 3,600 Hz, and 4,201 Hz, the wavelength was determined for each. This was done by subtracting the initial position from the final position (position final–position initial=wavelength). Using the calculated wavelength, the speed of sound in air at each frequency was determined by multiplying the wavelength by the frequency (speed of sound=wavelength x frequency). By adding the five speed values and dividing by the number of speeds, the average speed of sound was calculated. Then 344 m/s was used as the accepted
Suspension bridges usually experience torsional forces during very windy conditions where there are high wind speeds, this can create a twisting force causing the deck to rotate resulting in the bridge experiencing shear stress. (Bagga
My dependent variable how much weight each bridge can endure before the bridge breaks apart. When you add weight tension is created. (tension is a pulling force that occurs at the bottom of a bridge) when tension is applied the connecting points (glue, pieces that snap together, etc.) will unconnect so everything will fall apart and the bridge collapse to the ground.
One of the most influential engineering discoveries in the past century was the ill-fated Tacoma Narrows Bridge. “Galloping Gertie” as she was known to local residents, the massive Washington state suspension bridge shook, rattled and rolled its way into the history books. Legendary in its time, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge held many records and drew tourists from around the world in its short life. However, the famous bridge is not known for its creative engineering or speedy construction, unfortunately the bridge was destined to fail. That failure in turn changed the way every building is constructed today as well as further man’s understanding of physics and the forces of nature. In this paper we
Due to the design complexity of the Glasgow tower, construction could not start until a variety of wind tunnel test were completed. Mean hourly wind speeds along the river basin were used to measure the aerodynamic effects of the tower. Computational fluid dynamics programming was used to test the final design of the tower components. The project management team also did a good job in selecting the contractors from a pool over 70 international companies; the
The weight of a building is transmitted to the ground through its foundation when it is being constructed and this added stress to the underlying strata. The stresses added can cause
5) Wardhana, Kumalasari, and Fabian C. Hadipriono. "Analysis of Recent Bridge Failures in the United States." J. Perform. Constr. Facil. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities 17.3 (2003):
Each sample was measured under two conditions: no-chopper and chopper. The spectral data of a set of 64 samples of no-chopper was processed by overlapping and averaging. The spectral data of the chopper was demodulated by the method mentioned in Section 3.2, and different primary frequency components were selected from 1 to 5, and spectral data for the set of 64 samples were calculated according to Eq.
In Figure 7, the frequency of the basis functions vs. sample that appear in full and sequential sampling are plotted. The correlation of the frequencies is 0.87 and sequential sampling provides a band of uncertainty around the numerical solution while being efficient.
In this method, the challenges from that emanated from the previous methods are solved through the development of a quicker way that solves the same problems in a short duration. The goal of the project was to obtain an easier methodology that can help in solving systems of eigen problems. In particular the study aimed at obtaining anything that solve a collection of problems. The new methodology adopted not only maintains the solution requirements but also introduces systematic improvability. Through the new insights added to the new method which distinguishes it from the previous methodologies, the required accuracy coupled with a fewer degree of freedom can be achieved.