How Can You Ensure That You Are Giving Learners The Best Chance?

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How can you ensure that you are giving learners the best chance to understand a text? Provide a (listening or reading) text and show how you would teach a lesson with this in mind, justifying each of the stage of the lesson. Listening is the ability to identify and understand what others are saying. This involves understanding a speaker 's accent or pronunciation, his grammar and his vocabulary, and grasping his meaning (Howatt and Dakin). An able listener is capable of doing these four things together. During the listening students hear different accents and types. When students listen or read they process the information they hear both top-down and bottom-up. Top-down means using our prior knowledge and experiences; we know certain things about certain topics or situations and use that information to understand. Bottom-up processing means using the information we have about the sounds, word meanings discourse markers like first, then, and after that to set up our understanding what we read or hear one step at a time. In order to improve students’ listening comprehension they should use their prior knowledge. In a typical reading lesson there are “pre” activities, “while” activities, and “post” activities. In reading learners can skim a text quickly to get a good idea what it’s about, but listeners cannot skim. In listening lesson also has “pre”, “while” and “post” listening tasks. Each of these tasks is very important in order to ensure that the students understand
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