How Can the Theories and Models in Leadership and Motivation Help a Manager to Do His or Her Job More Effectively?

2577 Words May 23rd, 2007 11 Pages
How can the theories and models in leadership and motivation help a manager to do his or her job more effectively?

Two powerful tools a manager can use are displaying good leadership skills, and being able to motivate those around them. A highly motivated workforce is vital for an organisation seeking good results.

Leadership and management although being seen as synonymous do differ, not every manager is a leader and vice versa.
The emphasis of leadership is on interpersonal behaviour, and is often associated with the willing and enthusiastic behaviour of followers.
(Mullins, L. J. (2002), p. 254)

As a leader, you need to interact with your followers, peers, seniors and others, whose support you need in order to accomplish your
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As a manager you will have to compromise with the employee with what they want and what you are able to give.

Herzberg's two-factor theory
(Herzberg, F. (1966))

Herzberg developed a list of factors that are based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, however Herberg's version is more closely related to the working environment.
Herzberg's needs are specifically job related and reflect some of the distinct things that people want from their work as opposed to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs which reflect all the needs in a persons' life.

Herzberg further condenses down the five levels to two:

Hygiene factors (status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) which do not motivate if present, but if absent will result in demotivation.
Motivators (challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction.

There are two distinct criticisms of Herzberg's theory:

The theory has limited application to manual workers.
The theory is methodologically bound.
(Mullins, L. J. (2002) p. 433)

It is often claimed that the theory applies least to unskilled workers and these tend to be the hardest to motivate.
It is also noted that people are more likely to attribute satisfying incidents at work as a favourable reflection of their own performance, and the dissatisfying incidents to external influences.

McClelland's achievement motivation theory

David McClelland described three types of motivational need. These higher needs are
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