How Charging Requirements Vary Significantly Based On The Type Of Vehicles

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PEVs charging requirements varies significantly based on the type of vehicles, type of batteries and battery capacities. Trips starting with full battery charge can travel using electric power alone in charge-deplete mode till the SOC level drops to about 20-30%, and once this threshold level is reached, vehicles can be supported by ICE in case of PHEVs to drive in charge-sustaining mode to maintain the SOC close to the threshold level. As the battery capacity increases, the AER range increases, also the charging time increases. The total power consumed by a PHEV entirely depends on the battery type, battery capacity and the charging Level used. According to [34] , by default the charging system can supply the maximum available current. The charging limit can be controlled by the utility which is based on load management system. The charging rate is based on the charge profile, the charge profile can be constant current (CI) or constant voltage (CV) profile. A battery pack may be charged using any of the charge profiles depending on the battery technology. Most of the case a combination of these will be used. For instance, Lithium-Ion batteries are commonly charged using a combination of both charging profiles (CI/CV) [35]. The process can be explained as, at the beginning a constant current is applied, meanwhile the voltage reaches its upper limit. Once the voltage reaches the upper limit, it must be maintained constant in order to avoid any damage to the battery. During

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