How Depression Is A Common But Serious Disorder

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Depression is a common but serious disorder (Luyten, Fonagy, Lemma, et al., 2012). There is mounting evidence suggests that the malignant perpetuating dynamics, such as the stress-generation (Hammen, 2006; Luyten et al., 2011; Rudolph et al., 2000), the “cognitive triad” (Beck, 1993), negative attribution style (Moore & Fresco, 2007; Seligman, Abramson, Semmel, & von Baeyer, 1979), mood-congruent bias (P. Watkins, Vache, Verney, Muller, & Mathews, 1996), and negative self-focused rumination (Bagby et al., 1999; E. Watkins & Baracaia, 2002; E. Watkins & Moulds, 2005; E. Watkins & Teasdale, 2001) undermine both interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning of individuals (Luyten, Fonagy, Lemma, et al., 2012) and therefore often lead to a…show more content…
A vicious cycle is often created in this process (Luyten, Fonagy, Lemma, et al., 2012). For the RFS empirical studies on depression, findings are presented in the following sections. The applicability of the RFS in depression studies is also discussed. 2.3.3.1 Mentalizing Impairment in MDD/depression Subjects Several studies reported the RFS scores for MDD or depressed samples. For instance, Fischer-Kern et al. (2013) reported a 2.4 global RFS score for their female MDD sample, suggesting severe impairments in the mentalizing ability among MDD patients. Toth and colleagues (2008) reported an RFS score of 3.44 for a sample of mothers who had a MDD history. Similarly, in a chronic depressed patient sample, the RFS score was reported as 4 by Taubner and colleagues (2011). Finally, in Karlsson and Kermott 's study (2006), they modified the way to rate RF by applying the RFS rating manual to the transcripts of therapeutic sessions. The RF score was 4.52 for their MDD sample. According to the RFS manual (Fonagy et al., 1998), an RFS score of 5 is considered as ordinary RF which shows a relatively coherent and integrated but simple model of the mind. And scores under 5 are seen as low RF. The RFS scores for MDD patients in all the above studies were below 5, which evidenced the mentalizing impairment in depressed individuals. Nonetheless, the comparisons of the RFS scores with control groups showed a
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