On November 27, 1095, Pope Urban II gave a supposedly important speech at the end of a church meeting in Clermont, France. In it he had called upon the nobleness of the Franks, to go to the East and assist their Christian “brothers”, the Byzantines, against the attacks of the Muslim Turks. He also apparently encouraged them to liberate Jerusalem, the most sacred and holy city in Christendom, for the Muslims had ruled it since taking it from the Christian Byzantines in A.D. 638. The Crusades were a series of wars between Christians and others to take back Jerusalem.
The Crusades, a series of wars, are an extremely important part of history in the 12th century, occurring during the Middle Ages. The Middle East or the Holy Land was always a place that Christians traveled to to make pilgrimages. The Seljuk Turks eventually took control of Jerusalem and all Christians were not allowed in the Holy City. As the Turks power grew, they threatened to take over the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople. The Byzantine Emperor, Alexius I, asked Pope Urban II for help and Pope agreed, hoping to strengthen his own power. He He united the Christians in Europe and In 1095, Pope Urban II waged waged war against muslims in order to “reclaim the holy land.”
The Crusades were a series of holy wars that began in 1095 CE. These wars were fought between Christians and Muslims to gain control over the sacred land. The Turks moved into the middle east during the early part of the 11th century CE. Most of the Turks served the Islamic armies and would invade land rapidly using combat forces. This alarmed the Greek emperor and caused him to seek out Pope Urban II and ask for mercenary troops to confront the Turks. The Pope called a council and had 300 attendees to show up. During this council, the Pope made a plea to free the Holy Land, which received an enthusiastic response. After this, Pope Urban II promptly waged war against the Muslims and took armies of Christians to Jerusalem to try and
Furthermore the Europeans saw the Ottoman Empire as a threat and feared a new Muslim surge toward Europe. Additionally, the loss of the last European outposts in the Holy Land also eliminated the only European trading posts in the Eastern Mediterranean. All European trade with Asia had to then pass through Muslim merchants, who made it very expensive, only adding to European’s enmity to the new owners of what was renamed Istanbul. All of this impelled Europeans to go exploring new ways to get to China and India to resume the sought after trade for luxury
When the crusades began there was a rise in trade, decreased feudalism, and new access to trade with the Middle East. Europeans also had a desire for luxuries from the Byzantine Empire. The increase in trading with the Byzantine Empire led to new ideas, food products, and household goods. The food products from the Byzantine Empire were: rice, coffee, sherbet, dates, apricots, lemons, sugar, and spices such as ginger, melons, rhubarb and dates. The household goods traded were: mirrors, carpets, cotton cloth for clothing, ships compasses, writing
2. Almost 1,000 years ago Europeans fought over the Holy Land. European kings and lords had armies to fight for the land, known as the Crusades. In the Crusades Europeans were attempting to take the Holy Land back from the Turks.
The Crusades required soldiers to travel across the Mediterranean Sea to reach Jerusalem. Hence, Italian merchants built fleets to carry to Crusaders to the Holy Land. According to the Description of the Economic Impact of the Crusades, after the crusades, Italian merchants “used those fleets to open new markets” and “kept these trade routes open” (Document 2). When the Crusaders came back from the Holy Land, new items such as sugar, cotton, and rice entered Europe for the first time since the fall of the Roman Empire. Once Europeans were exposed to luxuries, they wanted more and more. Trade increased all throughout Europe, and the West entered a period of economic expansion. However, not only did Europe experience perks from the crusades, but so did the Muslims. The passage Description of some of the Effects of the Crusades describes how Muslim rulers “encouraged trade with European businessmen” (Document 5). Because Europe was in desperate need of the Islamic Empire’s sugar, cotton, and rice, Islam markets experienced new wealth and riches. Thus, both Europe and the Muslim Empire benefited from an increase in
As early as the 1500s, Asia was making a start towards religion. Many Missionaries, like the Jesuits, introduced various parts of Asia to the Christian faith. Towards the end of 1500, Jesuits were teaching in sixteen villages throughout India. These missionaries coming to serve mostly had good effects to the country and a few bad effects too.
Patrick Geary’s “Readings in Medieval History” contains four accounts of the invasion of the Middle East by the Europeans in 1095 A.D. These accounts all cite different motives for the first crusade, and all the accounts are from the perspective of different sides of the war. The accounts all serve to widen our perspective, we hear from the Christian and Middle Eastern side of the conflict. Fulcher of Chartres claims, Pope Urban the Second urged all Christians to intervene in the “East” at the council of Claremont, saying it was a sign of “Strength of good will”. (Readings in Medieval History, Geary, page 396).
During the period of 1450 to 1700, Europe flourished economically, leaving a growing population craving access to lush Asian goods. However, with the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman Empire assumed control over the coveted trade routes, creating obstacles for European merchants who neither had goods to offer or shared a common religion with such folk. These hurdles, along with the religious zeal of Christian missionaries and curiosity of European mariners led Western Europe to look elsewhere, specifically the Atlantic, for new trade routes. Although the hypothetical “Northwest Passage” was never found, Atlantic trade, more commonly known as the Columbian Exchange, boomed. With its primary commerce in slaves, silver, and spices, this
During the 10th to 14th centuries, many conquests throughout Eurasia were taking place. In Europe, the Pope at that time, Pope Urban II, called for a holy war. This holy war was called The Crusades, and lasted from 1095 to 1291. Roughly one hundred years later, the Mongols conquered thousands of square miles of land. The Mongols were led by Genghis Khan and used brutal tactics to kill as many people as they could. However, they were more accepting of the cultures they captured. The Crusades and the Mongols both had a significant effects on the trade, politics, and culture of the Islamic World; however the Mongols had a larger impact.
There is irrefutable evidence that over the period of the Middle Ages, both Christianity and Islam have been anchors in both shaping and influencing governance of kingdoms and empires comprising Western Europe, the Byzantine Empire, and territories ruled by Islam. Religion during this period was widely used to set laws, influence culture, justify armed conflicts, and pronounce punishment on citizens domiciled within the geographies depicted within this essay. I will attempt to illuminate the geopolitical climate, territorial demarcation, and religious influences that depicted life circa 500 – 1517 CE. From the background material submitted, I will directly answer the following questions:
Religion was one of the main reasons for the start of the First Crusade. Islam was growing and by the time of the late 11th century Islam occupied the areas of the Holy Land which were the foundations of Christian belief. Pope Urban 2nd made his speech November 1095 urging a military expedition to aid the Christians in the east. The Pope hoped that it would unify quarrelling in Europe and unite Europe through Christianity. The response that the Pope received was enormous. In the opinion of Jean Richard, who states that it was ‘problematic’ as it ‘set off shock waves that put
Going against modern day religious beliefs, in 1095AD the Christians went to war to claim the holy city of Jerusalem, massacring the Muslims in a bloody attempt to worship their God. Pope Urban II’s speech at Clermont inspired by claims made by the Byzantium Emperor encouraged the Christians to partake in the First Crusade in an attempt to liberate Jerusalem. The religious and economic factors were the most relevant to cause this crusade, with some influence from desired political gain and little from social factors unrelated to religion. The immediate consequences were positive for the Christians and negative for the Muslims, but the First Crusade launched an ongoing conflict between the Christians and Muslims which had positive and negative consequences for both sides. There are a number of relevant modern sources which examine the causes and consequences of the First Crusade, but, while there are many medieval sources, they do not explicitly discuss the causes and consequences of the war. In order to fully comprehend the First Crusade, it is necessary to analyse the religious, economic, and political factors, as well as the short-term, long-term, and modern consequences.