More than 90 percent of new drugs fail to make it into the public's hands. That 90 percent is also proven too toxic to even get past actual patient testing. Distinguished medical professionals find out if new medicines are toxic through various testings of which include human testing. Most of these test subjects include medical students as well as prisoners. Medical experiments have been conducted in prisoners for years. Not all of these tests however were properly practiced. Attached to these experiments are either great rewards for the medical community or unlawful controversy. The World Medical Association in 1961 failed to propose that prisoners should not be used as the subject of experiments. This was mostly because the experiments performed were unlawful and
Colorimetric assay is a process determining the concentration of a chemical element or compound in a solution
to compare the results, and neither solution was expected to produce an observable chemical reaction. The procedure was the same as used for the test with 6M HNO3 and 0.1M AgNO3 solution and the test with 6M HCl and 0.1M BaCl2 solution. A third experiment used was the flame test. First, a scoopula was used to place 0.1 grams of the unknown compound in a test tube, and a wash bottle was used to add approximately 2 mL of deionized water to create a solution.
Based on the results of the test, the unknown substance was Calcium Chloride. Multiple tests were performed to determine the identity of the substance. By comparing known positive results to the unknown substance, properties could be discovered about the substance. Most tests led to this conclusion, however some tests did not follow the established properties of Calcium Chloride.
• But the validity of the scientific tests was questioned by the UK Government’s environmental agency (EA) who claimed that the results of the tests were questionable because the tests seem to find differing levels of toxins, and so the EA submitted the same samples to nine laboratories in the UK and Wales, to one in the USA, and one in the Netherlands. The results they produced demonstrated enough variation between the laboratories to suggest that such tests may be underestimating the poisons.
In archaic medical training courses, pigs and dogs are cut open and killed and cats and ferrets have hard plastic tubes forced down their delicate throats.” Animal testing isn’t even 100 % accurate, because animal’s biological makeup is different than our own, and the results are usually misleading. Testing is required for certain drugs, vaccines, chemicals, cosmetics, and other products we use on our bodies, or put in our bodies. Most tests kill over 2,000 animals every time they are used.
gunter wachtershauser started it in 1988. proposed that a biochemical cycle grew and assembled the first living cell. swarms of bacteria rely on hydrothermal vents to thrive on the bacteria thrive on gases produced by the vents such as methane and use these chemicals to produce simple organic molecules to support the ecosystem. put ammonia, acetic acids, water, and salt to one container, and heated CaCO3 and zinc in another container to create carbon monoxide, which flowed into the first container. what came out was lipids and a drop in pH.
The hypothesis was first introduced in 1988 by a German scientist named Günter Wächtershäuser. He claimed that the chemical reactions in the vents could make organic compounds. He experimented by simulating the different chemical reactions that might occur in a vent. They wanted to heat iron and nickel sulfides together with carbon monoxide. The result was that a carbon-carbon bond was made and acetic acid was synthesized.
Trivalent (arsenite) and pentavalent (arsenate) arsenic produce different effects on cells, yet there is little distinction between the two forms of arsenic when discussing signs and symptoms of poisoning. An important fact to note is that during the metabolism of arsenate, 50-70% of it will be reduced to arsenite in the first step of the process. Therefore, the differences in the cell effects are seen from the 30-50% of the pentavalent arsenic unchanged via the bioactivation step of oxidizing glutathione or enzymatically catalyzed by arsenate reductase.1,2