How far was the First World War the main cause of the fall of the Romanovs in February 1917?
Many historians argue as to whether WW1 was the deciding cause of the Russian revolution 1917. In 1915, the Tsar took personal control of the army; he felt his leadership could inspire his troops. However, he was inexperienced as a leader and this led to the humiliation and defeat of the Russian army. In 1915, Germany launched a series of offensives against Russia, they were beaten and large areas of Russian territory were over run. The Tsar taking charge was seen as him taking personal responsibility for the military disasters inflicted upon Russia. For example, in 1916, for a period of time Russia did win some victories against the Austrians and regained some territory, but then due to the German army attacking in support of their Austrian ally, Russia was overpowered and defeated. Morale across Russia was low and the people were looking for someone to blame- this was the Tsar. During WW1, 2 million soldiers were killed during WW1 and similar numbers of civilians were killed also. The Tsar's attempt to raise moral and to
As World War I was heading towards its end Russia was focusing on internal issues. Led by Vladimir Lenin the Bolsheviks embarked on a campaign against the war. Using propaganda which focused on trying to turn the allied troops against their officers Lenin looked to inspire a socialist revolution. The Bolsheviks were also fueled by the poor conditions of the Russian Army. Nicholas II, in a letter to his wife Alexandra, admitted the obstacles that the Russian Army faced, "Again that cursed question of shortage of artillery and rifle ammunition - it stands in the way of an energetic advance." Czar Nicholas tried to deny the fact that his Army was in no condition to continue the fight. Lenin and the Bolsheviks used this information to gain
For many revolutions people may argue different reasons why that particular revolution was caused, but there often one that is the primary cause. The Russian Revolution began February 1917, many people in Russia lost faith in their government, especially since they had not done so well to begin with when they participated in World War I. Which resulted in a lot of expenses. Others may argue that since Tsar was an unproductive leader and because of the decisions he made when he was in power that influenced the Russian Revolution. Although Tsar’s weak leadership may have influenced the Russian Revolution, World War I was the main cause of the Russian Revolution because it destroyed the economy, which led to riots and many people
Russia's overthrows and shortage caused revolutionary upheaval and massive inflation, which led to deprived infrastructure. During World War I, Russian society naturally caused great dissatisfaction among the serfs. As the revolution wore on, numerous reform and Tsar Nicholas II, a ruler, tried to change Russia's social structure and government. Among the masses, there was discontentment with Russia's social system and living conditions. Laborers worked and lived in horrendous conditions, which played a crucial role in aggravating the condition of workers and peasants. As a result, peasants starved and Russia’s armies were overpowered on the battlefield because much of its terrain was occupied by enemies. Hence, Imperial Russia was a
In 1905, the social and economic tensions building up within Russia boiled over into Revolution. It was described by Lenin as the “Great Dress Rehearsal” for the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 and may give us clues as to why the 1917 revolution started. The suggestion that Tsar Nicholas II and his actions were to blame for this revolution is debatable and there are many factors such as the repressive Tsarist system, the growth of opposition from the time of Alexander II and the defeat in the war with Japan to consider. These events can be separated into short and long term effects on the revolution. Bloody Sunday and defeat to Japan would be short term effects whereas the
The lower class of Russia, which was composed of the working people felt misrepresented- or not represented at all.Nicholas II was the son of Alexander III of Russia, who was also the Emperor of Russia, before Nicholas. He was the heir of approximately 200 years of Czarist rule in Russia.Coming from a very rich family, Nicholas could hardly relate to the lower class. He had inherited Russia’s rule from his dad, and was not elected, which meant he was not necessarily qualified to correctly rule Russia, as he later proved through his actions.After he had angered the working class by slaughtering their own people, losing major battles in the war with Japan as well as in WWI, there was no way for him to amend for the mistakes he had made. Therefore, had the people been given the choice of taking down the Czar, they would have not hesitated.Their anger was represented through Lenin, with whom they felt they could connect to.Due to their dislike for the Czar, not many were dissatisfied when he was overthrown, and lated ordered to be executed by
People from all nations entered the war believing that it would be short and sweet. They did not expect a long brutal war that would be known for the severe amount of bloodshed and suffering. People held a romanticised view of the war and at the beginning of the war instead of fear and anger the people celebrated. “There were parades in the street...young recruits were marching triumphantly...thousands and hundreds of thousands felt what they should have felt in peacetime” (Document 2). The excessive exuberance regarding the Great War’s infant stages resulted in horrific realization and anger in citizens once they realized the truth about World War I. Rationing resulted in unbearable hunger for many people, especially in Russia. The destruction of land and the murder of people shocked the people of these warring nations. Most people suffered the complete destruction of their pre-war way of life and jubilant outlook. Fear lead to blame and anger that in the case of Russia bubbled over into a series of rebellions. The Russian Council of Ministers described the disorder when he wrote, “ There were disturbances in Moscow which ended in bloodshed...it was necessary to fire on the crowd with the result that sixteen were killed and thirty wounded” (Document 5). This disorder and anger was fueled by the disappointment of the war and the embarrassing losses that Russia suffered. It was also fueled by Russian discontempt with decisions made by their government like rationing and continuing war efforts. The Great War ultimately weaken Russia and allowed for Vladimir Lenin to swoop in and take over the Russian government, transforming the nation into a communist state and killing the Russian Czar Nicholas II. Not only was Russia transformed by the war but the nation of Germany also experienced great changes due to the war. The Treaty of Versailles left Germany
The Romanov Dynasty held the Russian Empire as one of the most powerful European states for over three centuries. In 1917, during Nicholas II’s opposed reign, a revolution began that transformed the empire into the first ever communist nation, replacing the infamous autocratic rule and introducing the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic. It was a combination of factors which lead to the eventual fall of the Romanovs. Tsar Nicholas came to the throne during an arduous time in Russian history and his inability to rule effectively was a significant factor contributing to the end of the Romanov Dynasty. The Russo – Japanese war in 1905, and the Great War in 1914, also had profound impacts on Russian society, and were key factors contributing to
In conclusion to the fall of the Romanov dynasty, it is shown that Nicholas had the biggest impact of Russia becoming a communist country as he did not have a greater understanding on the way to run his country, he also didn’t take full responsibility for his people and the soldiers in WW1,
World War 1 was a total disaster for Russia. Their army was poorly led and poorly equipped, this resulted in humiliating defeats at the hands of Germany. Undersupplied workers and peasants were sent in to battle without boots, coats or weapons. In 1915, Nicholas II took personal command of the army. However the Tsar’s leadership abilities were poor. The Russian army deteriorated, there was huge shortages of ammunition, equipment and medical supplies. The railways grounded to a halt, there was no transportation of food or fuel. Soldiers, workers and peasants began to suffer. These events cost Russia dearly, they lost millions of soldiers, morale was low and the people wanted someone to blame. In the severe winter of 1916-1917, the people had already began to doubt the leadership
Therefore, morale in Russia was not a reason why there was an outbreak of revolution in 1917. Nevertheless, the few military successes could not make up for the shocking casualty list revealed later on in wartime. Also, when the economic and military problems arose they could have been tolerable for the general public if they were encouraged by the people at the top such as the Tsar but no leadership was shown. Though this was a problem in Russia the morale in Russia was not too bad although people did begin to focus more on taking care of themselves because of the effects of the war on everyday life. On the other hand, the fact that central leadership was not being provided to the Russian public, criticisms began to be pointed directly at the Tsar. Nicholas failed in being commander-in-chief of the Russian armed services. He did not encourage war effort and did not prove to be the appropriate representative for the Russian people. In addition, the fact that he took on this important role meant that he was responsible for the wars consequences and the survival of Tsardom depended on military success. Due to the lack of success, Nicholas II was blamed and not his generals. This was a reason for the revolution in February 1917 to happen as it appeared to the citizens of Russia that they did not have a strong leader, also the tsarist system’s claim to the loyalty of the Russian people had been forfeited thus
The first factor that led to the 1917 Russian Revolution and the communist government that followed was Russia’s participation in World War I. When Russia first entered the war in 1914, they were confident, but their economy and political and social states were not doing well enough to sustain a war. At the time, Czar Nicholas Romanov II was the leader of Russia. Russia had an autocracy for a government, which meant Nicholas had all the power. He appointed his cousin, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, to be the commander-in-chief of the Russian army for World War I. Nikolaevich had never been a commander before, but Nicholas still chose him
What was the significance in WW1 in bringing about the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II in March 1917?
The First World War became the Tsars worst nightmare. Russia joined the war in many ways to keep peoples minds of Russia’s backwardness and badly run government, and onto the war effort itself. But within the first year of the war people’s minds began to wander away from troop moral and toward the Tsar and his control.