How Different Lung Diseases Affect The Lung

1480 Words Mar 10th, 2015 6 Pages
An analysis of how different lung diseases affect the lung’s functions
The lungs are essential respiratory organs in humans which enable us to breathe. Our lungs are specialised structures that allow us to exchange gases. We require oxygen from the air to enter our blood, as all cells need it to function. We also need to get rid of carbon dioxide which is a product of many metabolic reactions within our cells. Our lungs allow this gas exchange so we can get rid of carbon dioxide and acquire oxygen. Each person has two lungs that are connected by our trachea (windpipe). The trachea separates into two bronchi, one of each leads to a lung. These bronchi then branch off into smaller bronchioles. The bronchioles are then connected to small air sacs known as alveoli. These alveoli sacs separate gas which is within them from the capillary blood that surrounds them; this is where gas exchange occurs. Many lung diseases can damage different components of the lungs which can greatly affect the lungs functions. The disease states I will primarily focus on are Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB), fibrosis, Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).
Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB)
TB is a bacterial infection spread through inhaling tiny droplets from the coughs or sneezes of an infected person. NHS choices. (2014). Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterium known as mycobacterium tuberculosis. When a person is infected with this bacterium, it causes an immune response where cells form…
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