How Different Lung Diseases Affect The Lung

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An analysis of how different lung diseases affect the lung’s functions
The lungs are essential respiratory organs in humans which enable us to breathe. Our lungs are specialised structures that allow us to exchange gases. We require oxygen from the air to enter our blood, as all cells need it to function. We also need to get rid of carbon dioxide which is a product of many metabolic reactions within our cells. Our lungs allow this gas exchange so we can get rid of carbon dioxide and acquire oxygen. Each person has two lungs that are connected by our trachea (windpipe). The trachea separates into two bronchi, one of each leads to a lung. These bronchi then branch off into smaller bronchioles. The bronchioles are then connected to small air
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The infected tissue within the tubercles die, leaving the gas exchange surface damaged. This then reduces lung function as tidal volume is reduced. Occasionally the immune cells cannot kill the bacterium but prevent it from spreading to the rest of the body, meaning the individual will not present any symptoms. This condition is known as latent TB. However common symptoms of active TB include, a persistent cough that usually includes coughing up of blood and mucus, chest pains, shortness of breath, high temperature, tiredness and fatigue and even weight loss as many people lose their appetite. People with the inactive form of TB (latent TB) are asymptomatic. These people cannot pass on the infection to others, however if they become destabilized for example by contracting another disease, then their TB infection could become active and so could be passed on. TB can be prevented beforehand by taking the BCG vaccine. However if TB is already present in an individual, they can be treated with antibiotics. This course of antibiotics usually lasts 6 months. However some forms of TB are resistant to certain antibiotics which means treatment take much longer.
Fibrosis is a condition in which scar tissue is formed within the lungs. The cause of this condition is not fully known, however it is thought to be a result of an infection or when an individual is exposed to substances such as asbestos or dust.
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