How Do African Americans Use Metaphysical Forms Of Discipline?

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African Americans agree with spanking more often than Whites (Flynn 1994). Bradley (1998) found the opposite attitudes about spanking. African American parents preferred to use nonphysical forms of discipline. African American parents are more authoritative when it comes to discipline. Corporal punishment was only used if the parent’s power was tested. When the child test the power of a parent a form of deviance has occurred. If physical punishment occurs a belt, or spanking with an open hand is used (Bradley, 1998). Individual rates differ for who agree with spanking a child. African American rates range from 56.4% to 81.8%. Whites rates range from 30.8% to 56.9%. When it comes to the 3-4-year-old group no significant race differences in attitudes
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