The first diagnose of type 2 diabetes is the patient BMI. The patient BM is over 30 which indicates they are obese and could be at risk for diabetes. Overeating pressures the membranous network inside of cells called endoplasmic reticulum (ER). When the ER has more nutrients to process than it can handle, it sends out an alarm signal telling the cell to reduce down the insulin receptors on the cell surface. This interprets to insulin resistance and to insistently high concentrations of the sugar glucose in the blood. Which is one of the certain signs of diabetes. The second and third diagnose of diabetes is frequent urination and thirst. The reason why the patient urinates and become thirsty is because glucose leaks into your urine, which pulls
Diabetes also called the diabetes mellitus is explained as the disease of a group of metabolic that causes the imbalance blood glucose (blood sugar). The blood sugar is either high or low or sometime the both conditions exist in a single patient. The condition of the blood sugar occurs when the insulin production is inadequate. The other condition is when the body 's cells do not respond properly to insulin and sometimes in both cases the blood sugar is disturbed. As suggested by Harvey, Rebecca A., et al. The patients of high blood sugar often report frequent urination and thirst and hunger more than the usual patterns. The long term complication of diabetes cause many diseases like chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, damage to the
The body tends to deal with this imbalance by filtering out excess glucose throughout the kidneys, resulting in high levels of sugar in the urine. As glucose level rises the kidneys over-whelmed and don’t function normally. They lose their ability to absorb much water the result is frequent urination. This is commonly the earliest sign of diabetes. It is often followed by unquenchable thirst as the body tries to regain the lost fluids. It often seems that more fluid comes out than went in.
The physiological overview involves the kidneys processing blood by eliminating any excess mineral salts, urea and water as this provides homeostasis and it enables the body to work effectively. The nephron (which is part of the kidneys) for
Kidneys are complex organs that are very important when it comes to the many functions to help maintain the health of the body. This includes the maturation of the red blood cells, regulation of blood pressure as well as secretion of hormones. The Secondary functions of the filtration effect the controlling of the acid base balance in the body, and maintaining bone health (livingstrong.com).
If you have diabetes, one of the first symptoms you will notice is polyuria, or frequent urination. Polyuria occurs when the cells in your body release fluids into the bloodstream to dilute the sugar in your blood. As a result, your kidneys flush out this excess fluid in the body causing frequent urination.
Since the body is unable to use the glucose which is present, the blood sugar levels increase. The kidney will start to filter the glucose into the urine to lower the blood sugar levels. Glucose however also pulls along water and solutes with it into the urine, this event is called osmotic diuresis (Wolfsdorf et al., 2007).
The kidneys keep your body regulated by maintaining your fluid volume, mineral composition, and acidity. This is done by excreting and reabsorbing water and electrolytes. They keep a balance in sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium,
Diabetic Nephropathy often begins with hyperglycemia due to an increase of osmotic pressure (William & Hopper, 2011). It then leads to cell expansion and an increase in glomerular filtration rate or (GHR) (William & Hopper, 2011). Thus, kidneys will then receive less blood supply due to atherosclerosis of blood vessels (William & Hopper, 2011). Protein then will leak into the urine due to the capillaries in the glomerular thickining (William & Hopper, 2011). Theses patients most often have problems completely emptying the bladder of urine (William & Hopper, 2011). Most often they will report massive edema and nephrotic syndrome due to the high levels of protein in the urine (William & Hopper, 2011). The patient at this
Diabetes or diabetes mellitus, commonly referred by the doctors are a group of metabolic diseases where the person suffers from very high blood glucose (blood sugar). This is because insulin production is not adequate or maybe because the cell’s of the body is not responding properly to insulin, or both. The patients that have high blood sugar experience polyuria, which is frequent urination and
When a person has diabetes, depending on the type, the body is unable to absorb the glucose, leading to hyperglycemia. When the sugar concentration remains high for prolonged periods of time, the kidney has to increase its reabsorption and the glucose will be excreted in the urine. The increase in glucose causes osmotic pressure in the urine so the kidney reabsorbs water as well. An increase in water reabsorption leads to dehydration. When the glucose is not properly reabsorbed the body cannot store it in crucial areas such as the liver and muscles. Without energy to perform reactions, the body cannot perform crucial metabolic mechanisms such as protein synthesis. The body begins to lose energy and as a result, damage is done to various
I began with the resident’s diabetic problem. It is a fact that diabetes is a complex condition affecting many of the patient’s body systems. So, the potential to damage the urinary system involving the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra renal function is highly possible. Also, the immune system of the patient is already compromised and makes it even easier for this patient to acquire UTI. With the problem in the urinary system, it then caused the decreased of urine output for about 4 days which resulted into catheterisation. So then, the manifestation of hypoglycaemia was the effect of these mentioned reasons. As a support to my rational thinking, an evidence based researched stated that from a 94 patients who had renal insufficiency (46 had diabetes mellitus), an episodes of hypoglycaemia occurred for about 137 times in a duration of six months. Furthermore, one of the major related cause of hypoglycaemia is infection. (N Engl J Med 1986;
According to Bilous (2013), unmanaged diabetes over time can cause an accumulation of matrix material on the glomerular capillary basement membrane and in the area between the capillaries known as the glomerular mesangium. This thickening of matrix will eventually obliterate the capillaries leading to a decrease in glomerular filtration rate and eventual organ failure. The pathological course that leads to diabetic nephropathy has several warning signs that can be used to detect and slow down the progression of the disease. One of the earliest clinical findings is the increased concentration of albuminuria protein in the urine. This protein is indicative of leaky capillaries that have been damaged due to increased concentration of glucose in the
One of the diseases is diabetes mellitus which is a major cause of renal failure. This disease can be defined as an increase of fasting blood glucose that is affected by a deficiency in insulin hormone. The normal range for glucose (fasting) in the blood is 2.8-6.0 mmol/L. It is classified into two groups, type 1 (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) and type 2 (non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Stein (2008, p.6) points out that kidney failure happens most often when patients have suffered from diabetes mellitus for more than 10 years. According to United States Renal Data System (USRDS) report in 2007, approximately 44% of primary causes of renal failure is diabetes mellitus in the United States in 2005. Also, Stein (2008) indicates that 15% of dialysis patients are influenced by diabetes mellitus in the United Kingdom. Diabetes mellitus has negative affects throughout the kidneys where the increase of the range of blood sugar causes the damages to the cells in the kidneys. This leads to the presence of the glucose in the urine which is known as glycosuric.
Diabetes symptoms start off with, urges to urinate, and increasing thirst and hunger. But when diabetes is not treated carfully and properly it can damage vital organs and lead to