Autism is the main form of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism is a developmental disorder that is manifested in problems with communication, impairment of social functioning, and repetitive behaviours. According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), ASD diagnoses must meet four different areas of criteria. There are three symptoms of "deficits in social communication and interaction across contexts," four symptoms of "restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests, or activities," "symptoms must be present in early childhood," and the symptoms must "together limit and impair everyday functioning" (Carpenter, 2013). There are many theoretical positions on the causes of autism spectrum disorders. Some of which have been discounted by empirical studies that have been researched and performed.
There has been much research and debate on whether vaccines cause autism, however, there is no evidence that Measles, Mumps, Rubella vaccination is associated to autism. Parental age and pregnancy complications have been the most studied risk factors for ASD especially low birth weight and prematurity. Three of five studies have found low birth weight to have a significant association with autism spectrum disorder. Mothers aged 35 years and older and fathers aged 40 to 49 years have also found significant associations with autism. Pregnancy complications have been found to be significantly associated with ASD according to a 2012 systematic review. Prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal overall health have been explored by many studies. A cohort
While there are many theories there is no single cause of autism. One theory assumes multiple factors interacting in complex ways (i.e. genes, environment and brain) can cause autism. Genetics play a role but do not explain the full picture or the recent increase in reported cases. According to Volkmar and Weisner (2009), "Identical twins have identical genes, while fraternal twins share only some genes. The implication of this finding was that there was potentially a very strong genetic contribution in autism. A number of studies have shown that this is the case. " (p. 26). There are medical conditions associated with autism which include, phenylketonuria, congenital rubella, tuberous sclerosis, and Fragile X. The strongest associations are with Fragile X, a genetic condition causing intellectual disability and tuberous sclerosis, a genetic disorder that causes tumors to form in many different organs, primarily in the brain, eyes, heart. There is no strong evidence that environmental etologies cause autism. Some researchers assume that environmental toxins can increase the rate of autism, but evidence proposed for environmental factors is based on a case by case report which is difficult to interpret (Volkmar & Weisner,
Focusing on the role of environmental factors in the development of autism after birth is a popular study amongst the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) community. It is known that genetics strongly influence the risk for developing ASD, but genetics are not responsible alone. The increasing cases of autism have generated great interest in the potential involvement of toxins in our environment and how that impacts children prone to autism spectrum disorder. For example, exposure to the chemicals thalidomide and valproic acid prior to birth has been linked to increased risk of autism.
Autism according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary is defined as “a variable developmental disorder that appears by age three and is characterized by impairment of the ability to form normal social relationships, to commutate with others, and by stereotyped behavior patterns.” Autism was believed to be a psychiatric or emotional illness, and doctors told mothers that they were the cause. They were wrong. The cause for autism is still a mystery, however, the facts remain that autism in children is on the rise. Erin Allday of the San Francisco Chronicle writes, “Environmental factors play a more important role in causing autism than previously assumed and, surprisingly, an even larger role than genetic.” There are theories based on that
Autism is a fairly new diagnosis in the healthcare industry. A rapidly growing number of children are being diagnosed annually. There have been many rumors about how children are developing autism, and many treatment options are being attempted. There is currently no cure for this condition.
Autism is a brain based disorder that causes social-communication challenges. Autism is often diagnosed when children are very young. They can be diagnosed as early as 18 months according to the Autism Spectrum Disorder. Many expecting parents will prepare for a pregnancy by the usual healthy diet to make sure that they have a healthy baby, however, many children are still getting diagnosed with autism every day. There is a statistic stated on the Autism Spectrum Disorder that about 1 in every 68 children in the United States currently has autism. There are many different beliefs people have for as to what causes autism, but there still has not yet been a found cure. There needs to be a stronger effort in the medical fields to find the leading cause of autism.
In the United States today, the fastest-growing disability that deals with development is autism(Facts). Autism Spectrum Disorder can be described as “a condition or disorder that begins in childhood and that causes problems in forming relationships and in communicating with other people(Webster).” Although the number of children diagnosed with autism is on the rise, there are many different levels of autism, which can affect how the cases are dealt with. Autism has no cure, but by informing the world, it can help to prepare an autistic child for the future that they hold.
This paper will cover many aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorder, also commonly known as ASD. It will identify reginal, national and global statistics of the occurrence of ASD, predisposing factors, usual signs and symptoms of ASD, and tests used for diagnosis. It will also analyze both medical, surgical and psychosocial aspects of the care needed by patients with ASD, interdisciplinary interventions, comorbidities commonly associated with Autism, and the prognosis of these patients. Lastly it will identify several implications for best nursing practice and interventions that may be helpful in the care of these patients.
What is Autism? Autism also specified as Autistic Spectrum Disorder, ASD, Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), Childhood Autism (ICD-10), Autistic Disorder (DSM-IV), Atypical Autism (ICD-10), PDD not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Asperger Syndrome (ICD- 10)/Asperger Disorder (DSM-IV), is a series of developmental disabilities that cause substantial impairments in social interaction, as well as difficulties in nonverbal interactions and behavioral challenges. From the early 1900s, autism has been pertained to a range of neuropsychological conditions and has been in use for about 100 years. In which it still does today, the word "autism" comes from the Greek word "autos", meaning "self 'which describes conditions in which a person is detached from social interaction or an isolated self. ("A history of autism," 2005). Psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler was the first person to use the term to describe the behavior of some of his patients and it wasn 't until 1938 that autism was first studied in depth to where it 's modern meaning (Jevtic, 2015). Autism is a result of a neurological disorder that has an effect on normal brain function, causing many people with ASD to seek more help in their daily lives where others might seek for less. Autism is also known as a wide-spectrum disorder
According to Autism Speaks There are approximately 1 out of every 110 children with autism and that the number of diagnosed cases of this disorder increases steadily. Now I will talk about the causes of Autism There are a variety of causes behind this disease, the most important of which are: birth factors, brain factors or biological factors. Finding a child is difficult to distinguish parents from the rest of the people. Also suffering the child from a lack of skill earns friends. Their social behavior is not tactful the development of language in the children with autism is delayed, and it is difficult for them to use the
Autism is a group of complex disorders of brain development. There are many other names for this such as autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) or high-functioning autism (HFA). Autism impacts the normal way people interact, communicate, and function. People with autism suffer from medical conditions such as allergies, asthma, feeding disorders, sleeping disorders, and many more. Autism gets diagnosed in boys four times more than girls. It does not affect life expectancy, this is one of the fastest growing developmental disorders in the U.S. There is no medical test that diagnosed this but trained physicians and psychologist administer their behavioral evaluation.
Just as there is no duplicate case of autism, there is no one cause. Alternatively, there is a list of causes. Some of the most common include genetic mutation and predisposition as well as environmental factors. Some research shows that women can reduce the chance of their children being autistic by increasing folic acid intake before and following conception. Other research shows that “advanced paternal age can affect the child’s risk” of being
There is no single theory that explains the cause of autism. My feeling is that a combination of genetic factors and environmental factors may be part of the root causes linked to autism. Research has proven that autism is not caused by a single gene, it is rather caused by multiple genes. Twin and family studies strongly suggest that some people have genetic predisposition to autism. Identical twin studies have concluded that if one twin has the disorder, the likely hood that the other will be affected is as high as 95%! Another conclusion is that autistic children have at least 10% missing or extra DNA compared to their parents. Researchers should now focus on determining if environmental factors play a role in autism. A study of environments
There is growing evidence that the rapid rise in reported cases of autism is caused, and influenced equally, by genetic and environmental factors. Environmental factors include a broad range of influences as varied as parental age, birth complications and maternal nutrition at conception, vaccines and exposure to pollution during early brain development. Most genetic factors are considered in combination with environmental ones. It is believed that over time genetic changes brought on by the environment are passed on to future generations predisposing them to disorders as autism. While thousands of dollars and countless studies claim to have found a concrete link between environmental and genetic factors and the new