Earthquakes and Subduction Zones Lab Amy Paret Mrs. Igo 9th Grade Periods 3 and 4 Even Date: 2/14/13 Background Research: This lab uses earthquake data to construct profiles of two convergent boundaries: the Tonga Trench and the Peru-Chile Trench. Where two tectonic plates converge, if one or both of the plates is an oceanic lithosphere, a subduction zone will form. When crust is formed at a mid-ocean ridge, it is hot and buoyant meaning it has a low density. As it spreads away from the ridge and cools and contracts, or becomes denser, it is able to sink into the hotter underlying mantle. When two oceanic plates collide, the younger of the two plates, because it is less dense will ride over the edge of the older plate. The density of the
Volcanoes can be found throughout the entire world and are formed when there is a rupture in the mantle of the Earth's crust. This effect allows the output of volcanic lava, ash, and various types of gases. These tectonic plate breaks are normal, the planet Earth is divided into 17 tectonic plates and consistently move against each other forming shifts from low to high intensity. It can cause displacement of earth or water.
A.It is lost through subduction. B. It becomes oceanic crust. C.It becomes continental crust. D. It is lost through seafloor spreading. Answer Key: A Question 16 of 22 4.0/ 4.0 Points Most of Earth’s volcanoes are located in the _______________ around the Pacific Rim just beyond the oceanic trenches, where magma, which is less dense than the
The Hawaiian Islands were created from volcanoes over the millions of years. The Islands sit on the Pacific Ocean plate and the way these islands were formed was from the hotspots in the earth’s crust and from the underwater volcanoes that soon rise to make land. There is roughly eight
Anth 368 Midterm 1.What roles do plate tectonics play in the geomorphology of Pacific Islands? The earth’s crust is made out of plate tectonics. Each plate has a defined boundary and direction it moves. The plates in Earth’s crust perform two actions; they submerge under each other or they spread out. The Pacific Plate is the largest plate and it borders around many plates. The Pacific Plate moves northwest. New crust is formed from magma outpours, which are a result of the zones spreading. The tectonic plates created the islands. When the tectonic plates move, it creates the change in geography. Active volcanoes together shape the way islands are build. The magma from the volcano and the deposits from the plate are needed to create
The theory of plate tectonics states that the Earth’s lithosphere (top layer of the Earth’s crust) is split up into rigid sections called plates that are moving relative to one another as they move on top of the underlying semi-molten mantle. These plates are either continental, The North American Plate, or oceanic, The Nazca Plate.
As a tectonic plate slides into the mantle, the heat releases fluids trapped in the plate. Seawater and carbon dioxide, rise into the upper plate and can partially melt the overlying crust, forming magma. And magma most likely means volcanoes are around.
The new volcanic material welling up into the void, which forms a ribbon of new materials and breaks down its center gradually, when the plates move apart from the axis of the mid-oceanic ridge system. Therefore, every separating plate accretes one half a ribbon of new lithosphere, and, thus, a new surface is added (Pitman, W.C, 2007). The process is continuous, and separation is always happening at the
The breaking apart of this supercontinent was due to the movement of the Earth's Tectonic Plates. Tectonic Plates are large masses of the lithosphere or outer layer of the Earth's surface. The layers included in the Lithosphere are the Crust up to the upper layer of the Mantle. The Oceanic Crust is thinner and denser than the Continental Crust and can be found underneath the ocean. It is also more active than the Continental Crust that stretches 200 km below the Earth's surface. This crust drifts and moves either horizontally or vertically causing geological phenomenons such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc. The major tectonic plates are North American, Caribbean, South American, Scotia, Antarctic, Eurasian, Arabian, African, Indian, Philippine, Australian, Pacific, Juan de Fuca, Cocos, and Nazca. These plates move an estimate of 1 to 10 cm per year causing interaction at plate boundaries. When two plates are colliding or moving toward each other it is in Convergent boundaries. If these two plates are Oceanic Crusts, they are in Subduction zones wherein the denser plate in forced beneath the less dense plate and would eventually melt or destroy. On the other hand, when two plates move away from each other it is in Divergent boundaries. New crust material from molten magma formed below may fill the space between these plates or become ocean basins.
The theory of plate tectonics states that Earth’s outer shell is divided into plates. The crust and upper mantle is broken into plates that move around on the mantle, changing in size throughout time. The lithosphere makes up the crust and upper mantle and the asthenosphere a plastic like layer beneath the lithosphere. There are three types of plate boundaries. Divergent boundaries where two plates move away from each other. The ocean widens and new crust forms at the mid-oceanic ridge. Convergent boundaries has three types of converging, moving two plates towards each other. First we have an ocean floor plate that collides with a less dense continental plate. Next an ocean floor plate collides with another ocean floor plate. Finally a continental plate collides with another continental plate. Transform boundaries were two plates slide past one another. The resulting effects of plate tectonics is landforms such as rift valleys,
Volcanos typically formed as a consequence of plate tectonics. In fact, they tend to form when plates converge into each other. In the process of subduction, one plate of the lithosphere, cupped by oceanic crust, slides beneath another one, giving origin to a subduction zone. While sliding down, heat is generated and water is released, causing the formation of magma that rises up to the surface and forms volcanos parallels to overriding plate. The Pacific West region of the United States is known for presenting this type of structure in which the oceanic lithosphere pushes towards the continent and sinks down into the asthenosphere.
To what extent are volcanic landforms fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics theory? (40) Plate tectonics theory is the scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of the Earth’s lithosphere, which is broken up into tectonic plates. Volcanic landforms are undoubtedly very important in aiding our understanding of plate
The different tectonic plates rest on the mantle, a very hot layer of earth that is directly beneath the crust. There are seven major tectonic plates, their names are The Pacific Plate, The North American Plate, The Eurasian Plate, The African Plate, The Antarctic Plate, The Australian Plate, and The South American Plate. In addition to these major plates there are also many smaller tectonic plates that make up parts of the Earth's crust. When the boundaries between plates shift, this causes earthquakes. There are three types of movements that cause earthquakes. Divergent is when the plates move away from each other, Subduction is when one plate moves underneath another, and Transform is when the plates grind against each other. The lithosphere is another name for earth's crust and mantle, it is made up of all the tectonic
How do plate tectonics and ocean currents influence climate change? The tectonic plates are all over the earth’s surface. Over the years, these plates and their characteristics have become common knowledge. These plates move around 3cm at least every year and they move in different directions due to the convection currents of molten magma that flows beneath them. [Raunekk 2010] A convention current definition is “a current in that a fluid is that a results from convection.” [Earth’s dynamic] Then the movement of these plates are the main forces behind catastrophic events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions as well as the development of mountains. In addition, this means that these plates are the main reason why our planet surface looks the way it does today. When processes such as pushing, folding and tilting (as well as other forms of tectonic movement) take place, it shapes our planet [Weather Wizkids 2015] as well as playing its part in heating it to an unbearable degree along with the aids of ocean currents. In comparison to the plates that mainly produce heat through its products the ocean current move the heat all over the earth’s surface.
Formed by the solidification of magma. Has different environments for its formation, the cooling rates that are involved help create the texture which makes and defines the two major groupings in igneous rocks, the major groupings include Volcanic rocks and Plutonic rocks. The Volcanic rocks start to form when magma