Autism is a form of neurodevelopment disorder in the autism spectrum disorders. It is characterized by impaired development in social interactions and communication, both verbal and non-verbal. There is an observed lack of spontaneous acts of communication; both receptive and expressed, as well as speech impairments. A person diagnosed with Autism will also show a limited range of activities and interests, as well as forming and maintain peer relationships. The individuals will display limited interests, which are often very focused and repetitive. He or she is likely to be very routine oriented and may show behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and self-injurious behaviors.
Even as adults, sometimes we tend to question whether or not there is something more to us. In years past, and often still is, the subject of autism was unknown, and often misunderstood. Many times autistic tendencies are just dismissed as either bad behaviors or defiance. Many times the individual also has an underlying condition such as attention deficit disorder. This article sheds some light on that subject.
Autism is characterized as a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects social interactions, nonverbal and verbal communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior. On a global scale, autism was estimated to affect 21.7 million people in 2013, and the number continues to rise as time persists. Children are often diagnosed while they are infants, usually in the first two years of life, when parents notice odd behaviors such as assembling toys or stacking of objects. It is not yet well understood how autism occurs, but we do know that autism affects information processing in the brain by changing the way nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize. Autism is one of the three disorders that make up the Autism Spectrum, the second is
Executive function theory deals with planning, working memory, impulse control, inhibition and mental flexibility. Also, it includes the initiation and monitoring of action. This theory explains some of the autism symptoms. For example, repetitive and restricted behaviour observed in autistic children might be explained due to executive dysfunction. In addition, the poor social interaction could be due to defect in cognitive shifting which is a vital part of executive function.
In the United States, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention reports that between 1 in 80 and 1 in 240, for an average of 1 in 110 children have an autism spectrum disorder, “ASD” (Nirv, Shah 2011). According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, up to six out of every 1,000 children may be diagnosed with some form of autism. In addition, boys are four times more likely than girls to have autism. This means that as many as 1.5 million Americans today are believed to have some form of autism. Unfortunately, the numbers appear to be increasing rapidly. Autism is a disability that frequently appears during the first three years of life. It is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the
Mixed research of executive function in autism. Overall, the EF profile in ASD cannot be generalized to all individuals with ASD (Wallace et al., 2016b). In regard to mixed findings of EF profiles in ASD in their review, Wallace et al. (2016b) argue there are recognizable gaps in the current literature in regard to the kinds of people studied. For example, many of the studies have been done on younger children and adolescents (Barnard et al., 2008; Hill, 2004b). This leaves many sub-populations and age ranges underrepresented at this point, in addition to a void in examining the effects of many cultural factors (Wallace et al., 2016b).
Intact executive functioning is critical for adaptability and functioning in daily life (Fuster, 2015) and individuals with ASD have impairments in executive functioning (Wallace et al., 2016b). Executive dysfunction underlies many of the core problems in autism such as social deficits (Freeman et al., 2017; Hill, 2004a) and restricted, repetitive behaviors (Hill, 2004a; Lopez et al., 2005) yet many of the methods used to assess for autism lack ecological
Sam was the main character in this article, who had Asperger syndrome, which is a disorder of the autism spectrum disorder. Sam, like other children with ASD was at times hard to handle and become frustrated with his peers easily. Many times he would scream at those that he didn’t care for came near him or even touched him. His mom had a hard time connecting with Sam at times and he didn’t always listen to her. He especially never seemed to listen to her when it was time for her to take him to a sports club. Every Monday it consisted of her constantly telling Sam he had to go which resulted in her dragging him to the car. When Sam arrived to the Delaware Sports Club, ran by the University of Delaware, he didn’t always want to participate in the activities. Sam was being bragged or given rewards if he completed a physical activity. Physical activities to Sam was playing his video games and watching T.V. His instructors tried everything they could think of to get Sam to enjoy the physical activities they had planned for him. Nothing seemed to interest Sam and he would result to shutting down from everyone whenever he didn’t feel like doing the activity. However, the college students soon learned about a research that was being conducted with therapy dogs. Using a therapy dog during Sam’s physical activities sessions made him more interested and want to participate. His mom no longer had to force him to go to sports club, and he became so excited whenever his dog, Calli,
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication, and behavior challenges and was first described by Dr. Leo Kanner in 1943 (Brown & Percy, 2007). Individuals with ASD can range from high functioning to low functioning in their ability to learn, think, and problem solve (Brown & Percy, 2007). Behavior problems are common among individuals with ASD (Hill at el, 2014). Kogan (2009) estimates that approximately 637,000 children in the U.S. alone have ASD and within those 637,000 children, Hagopian (2007) suggests that half of those children, who are diagnosed with ASD, also display problem behavior. According to Hagopian & Hardesty (2014), Applied Behavior
Within the last twenty years, the amount of empirical research regarding the possible cause(s) and risk factors for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has increased (Lai et al., 2014). According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), ASD is currently identified in approximately 1 out of 68 children living in the United States, compared to 1 in 10,000 children in 1980 (Baio, 2014). The rise in ASD prevalence highlights the need to continue research into etiology, risk factors, and effective treatments. Purpose: This paper is a critical review of current scientific studies that have focused on the ASD population about etiology of the disorder, susceptibility, and prevalence. Theories and factors that appear to influence or predict ASD outcome are reviewed. Method: Twenty-two research articles published between January 1, 2009, and November 1, 2014, in scientific, peer-reviewed journals were retrieved from the following electronic databases: ProQuest, CINAHL Complete, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The articles were evaluated for risk of bias. Results: Recent findings suggest autism is a disorder caused by interplay of multiple genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors.
Autism was discovered around 60 years ago and since then it is considered as fascinating, puzzling and massively researched disorder. Several therapies and treatment that can be done to reduce the effect of ASD, but there is no cure. Adams, N. , & Jarrold, C. (2012), researched on how resistance to distract or inhibition can reveal impairments in children with Autism spectrum Diseases ASDs. They came in the conclusion that that autism is specific deficit, which can even increase perceptual capacity in autism.
Autism is a clinical syndrome characterized by qualitative impairment of social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, imaginative activity, and a markedly restricted repertoire of activities and interests. Within the first 3-6 months of their lives, parents may note the child does not develop a normal pattern of smiling or cuddling response. As they grow older, they do not progress through developmental milestones such as learning to say words or speak sentences. Instead, they seem aloof, detached, and withdrawn. Instead of developing a pattern of relating warmly to their parents, they may instead engage in self-stimulating behavior such as rocking or head banging. By age 2 or 3 years, it is
This paper is about Autism and the many aspects of the disease. I know a lot about this topic, my son was diagnosed with autism. It’s a disease that affects the whole family. There is no test for the disease. It’s a long process and there are many different aspects of autism. Luckily, my son is on the “high-end” of the spectrum. Being around him you might not notice that he has autism, until you spend some time with him then you realize something just isn’t quite right. It’s been a long difficult process getting him to the right doctors, and getting a diagnosis. It’s a complicated illness.
With a slight increase of knowledge about the disability, researchers searched for reasons of the causes of autism. According to Bruno Bettelheim, he claimed that mothers not being affectionate enough, demonstrating coldness towards their children caused the Autism. Kanner and Bettelheim worked together to prove their hypothesis that children who were diagnosis with autism had mothers who were fridge and unloving towards them (Mandal, 2009). They conducted many different experiments to prove this theory; they even would separate the children with autism from their mothers, recording their actions for date to support their hypothesis. Many people challenged this theory, such as psychologist Benard Rimland who had a child with Autism. He denounced the hypothesis that mothers not being affectionate to their children, stating that his and his wife parenting skills were not the cause of this disability. In 1946 he published, Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and its Implications for Neural Theory and Behavior, sharing a new perspective and theory of what causes autism (Mandal, 2009). As time progressed so did awareness for autism and new development in teaching and therapy. By the 1980s the Erica foundation started education and therapy for children with autism. Also in the 1980s research gained momentum, concluding that parenting had no role in the causation of autism. In 1991 the federal government adds Autism Spectrum Disorder to the special education category, allowing public
Autism are a general term that is used for a combination of complicated disorders of brain development. These disorders cause, in varying level, difficulties in verbal and nonverbal communication and interaction with the society (1). Autism leads to intellectual disability, troubles in attention, movement and general physical health problems. However, some autistic patients may surpass the healthy individuals in visual skills, art, and math (2). Autistic patients see, hear and feel the world differently from other people. They believe that the world is overwhelming and this could make them