How Does the Young’s Modulus of a Sweet Lace Compare to the Young’s Modulus of the Cables Supporting the Millennium Bridge ? How Does the Young’s Modulus of a Sweet Lace Compare to the Young’s Modulus of the Cables

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How Does The Young’s Modulus of a Sweet Lace Compare To The Young’s Modulus of the Cables Supporting The Millennium Bridge ?

Visit: The Millennium Bridge

For our physics practical, we visited The Millennium Bridge a pedestrian footbridge located at the heart of London that crosses the River Thames. It links the City and St Paul’s Cathedral to the north with the Globe Theatre and Tate Modern on Bankside. Construction of this infrastructure began in the late 1998 by the engineering company Arup and it was launched on the 10 June 2000.

Structure of Bridge:
Structurally, the bridge is a composition of two key metals steel (2 x 1011 Nm-2) and aluminum. These metals are common in bridges due to their properties of high strength and
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This feature was achieved by ensuring that the sag ratio remained low. The bridge has also become a navigation site for many commercial and tourist traffic in the River Thames Waterways.

Problems Occurred:
Furthermore, when the millennium bridge opened within the first weekend around 100,000 people had crossed the bridge. Due to such heavy traffic, this lead to something called resonance. Resonance is when the input vibrations frequency coincides with the natural frequency of the structure itself, causing large deflections to develop. The issue caused the bridge to undergo a swaying movement; hence led to its closure. After extensive research and analysis, it was found that the movement was caused by synchronized pedestrian footfall. To prevent this there were two options taken into account the lateral stiffening and the damping; both were used in order to increase the natural frequency of the structure so it did not match the footfall. In addition structures called fluid-viscous dampers and tuned mass dampers were installed to control both horizontal and vertical movements.
In Relation To Practical:

The visit influences our practical as we gain an understanding of how in the engineering industry selection of materials is determined using indicators such as Young’s Modulus. Young’s Modulus is a measure of stiffness that is independent of the particular sample of a substance. This indicator is very vital as it determines the material’s strength, toughness

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