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How Far Do Zinc Acetate Dehydrate

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AZO thin films are prepared by the sol-gel route. As a starting material, zinc acetate dehydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2, 2H2O) (sigma Aldrich) is dissolved in a mixture of pure ethanol and monoethanolamine (MEA, C2H7NO) to yield a precursor concentration of 0.75 M. Aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (Al(NO3)3, 9H2O) (sigma Aldrich) was added to provide a solution with an atom ratio Al/Zn of 3%. This resulting mixture was stirred for 1 h at 50°C. The MEA to zinc acetate molar ratio was set to 1.0. Prior to sample deposition, the glass substrates were firstly degreased by detergent and rinsed with distilled water. The substrates were subsequently cleaned ultrasonically in ethanol and acetone for 15 min at 60°C each time and then dried in a furnace at 100°C for…show more content…
XRD analysis was performed using a PanAlytical X-ray diffractometer with a Cu anode, generating Kα radiation (=1.54046 Å) and operating at 40 kV and 30 mA. Raman spectra were recorded at room temperature with a Bruker Optik GmbH Raman microscope-spectrometer Senterra using a 100x MPLN Olympus objective. The wavelength of the excitation laser was 448 nm. Surface morphology was analyzed by SEM on a Raith PIONEER System and the particle size distribution histogram was determined using particle detection software (SPIP, Image Metrology). A Nanosurf easyScan 2 AFM (Nanosurf, Liestal, Switzerland) in contact mode was employed to obtain topographical images and the Gwyddion software [34] was used for image processing and root mean square roughness (Rrms) calculation. The electrical properties such as resistivity and carrier concentration were determined from Hall Effect measurements at room temperature using an Ecopia HMS-300 system based on the van-der-Pauw method. The optical transmittance spectra were recorded at room temperature by a Safas UVmc2 UV–Vis spectrophotometer and the optical bandgap energy data was then derived from the transmission spectra. The optical waveguiding characterizations were carried with a Metricon Model 2010/M Prism Coupler System equipped with a polarized He-Ne laser beam operating at a 632.8 nm wavelength. A Veeco Dektak 150 Surface Profiler was used for film thickness investigation. The thickness of the AZO films prepared at 6, 12, 18 and 24 coatings was measured to be 232, 425, 617 and 798 ± 1 nm,
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