How Grassroots Communities Develop From The Bottom Up And Form New Types Of Power Relations

925 WordsMar 31, 20164 Pages
The rapid increase in books, articles and journals that describe how “grassroots” communities develop from the bottom-up and form new types of power relations in and around the state (Nelson, 2000; Bartoli, 2002) demonstrates that non-state actors also have the ability to create different types of social linkages and alternative economic spaces. For post-development scholars like Escobar (1992) and Rahnema (1997), pluralistic social movements that respond to the concerns of local communities are the type of actors that can shift development studies from imperialist domination to the good life of “beauty, fragility and simplicity” (Corbridge, 1998, p. 139). The point being that there is a need to reinforce the fact that communities are not passive victims of development and that less powerful actors are able to explore a range of alternative development pathways. For instance, in addition to cases where villages in Afghanistan have revived traditional political and economic structures such as shuras (councils) and mullahs (lawgivers) which settle local disputes and provide water, land and access to credit through community rules and norms (Wily, 2003; Emadi, 2005; Favre, 2006; Brick, 2008), communities in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have managed to transform development initiatives such as oil palm production to empower themselves through ‘place-based practices’ (Curry, 2003, p. 3) that bear little resemblance to traditional market relations. As Gregory (1982) notes, the use of

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