How Has Psychological Science Developed Throughout History?What

1532 WordsMar 21, 20177 Pages
How has Psychological science developed throughout history? What are the implications of these developments? Critically reflect on this in relation to one areas of Psychology (for example those covered in the second half of this module). Health Psychology Introduction The advancement of psychological science creates important influence that are relevant to matters such as prevention and treatment of diseases. (Taylor 2006). Health psychology a field developed in the late 1970’s is an application of psychology that helps individuals understand the biological, social and psychological factors that influence diseases. First, this essay discusses a historical view of health the biomedical model to biopsychosocial model. Second, it…show more content…
The Biomedical Model has become less important regardless of evidence of its viewpoint on health because it only focuses on biological factors (Engel 1977). Engel (1977) argues that the biomedical model does not take into consideration of other factors such as psychological and social that are likely to influence illness. Kelly & Kalichman (2002) point out that poverty is a social factor that leads to HIV transmission. This shows that the biomedical model only pays attention to treatment instead of prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours. These findings suggest that an individual is likely to get ill due to psychosocial and social factors. On the other hand, the Biopsychosocial model developed by Engel (1977) is different from the biomedical model. This is because it considers biological factors that cause illnesses and further expands that illnesses also come about as a result of psychological factors and social factors. Engel (1977) suggests that health and illness interplay of all above three factors and maintains that the mind and body cannot be distinguished in matters of health and illness because both influence an individual’s state of health. For example, the psychological component of biopsychosocial tries to find a basis of why people risk their lives by continuing to engage in risky sexual behaviours that lead to STD’s such as HIV( ). It also seeks to find ways to help infected
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