How Health Is A Complex Status

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Health is a complex status, determined by a myriad of factors including biology, genetics, social support, income, social status, education, literacy, employment, working conditions, social and physical environments, personal practices, coping skills, gender, culture, and available health services (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011). America’s Health Rankings (Shi & Singh, 2011) state that health is the result of four controllable and modifiable components: behaviors, the community environment in which people live and work, the clinical health care received, and public and health policies and practices. Improvement in any of these components can lead to an improvement in overall health. Socioeconomic status (SES) is a health determinant…show more content…
There are two hypotheses related to the relationship between occupation and health. The social causation hypothesis poses that employment contributes to overall health. The selection hypothesis states that healthier people are more able to find a keep a job. Income measures include individual income, household income, or family income. Higher incomes allow people to pay for healthcare as well as better nutrition, neighborhoods, housing, schools, transportation, and recreation (Shavers, 2007).
SES has been recognized as an important contributor to overall health status for centuries; think of the difference in health for serfs vs. lords, sweatshop workers vs. sweatshop owners, slum dwellers vs. residents of gated communities, and high school dropouts and college graduates. The images that these examples bring to mind demonstrate the differences between low SES and high SES. The difference in the health and the power of each comparison group is immediately noticeable with the first groups conjuring visions of downtrodden, poor people and the second of influential, wealthy leaders. These differences have contributed to the strong correlation between low SES and high morbidity and premature mortality (Coleman, 1990). There are behaviors and lifestyle choices that directly impact individual health status- morbidity and mortality, including diet, physical activity, alcohol, cigarette and other drug use, hand washing, unprotected sex, and motor vehicle
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