Processor: A computer processer, otherwise known as the CPU (Central Processing Unit) is a part of the computer that receives input and decides that the output will be. Many modern CPUs are capable of processing trillions of calculations per second. The speed of a processor measured by how many operations a CPU can do in one second; this is done in MHz or GHz (Megahertz or Gigahertz). A processer with the speed of 1 MHz does 1,000,000 operations per second, and a 1GHz processer does 1,000,000,000 operations per second. This is known as the clock speed.
Symmetric multiprocessing: here all the processors are treated as equals and I/O operations can be
Symmetric multiprocessing treats all processors similarly. I/O can be processed on any processor. The processors interconnect with each other as needed. It allows many processes to be run at once without corrupting performance. Symmetric multiprocessing treats all processors similarly. I/O can be processed on any processor. The processors interconnect with each other as needed. It allows many processes to be run at once without corrupting performance. Three advantages of multiprocessing are: Increased throughput - with more processors, more work can be accomplished in less time; Economy of scale - peripheral devices may be shared amongst multi-processor systems; increased reliability - if one processor crashes, then the others may continue to operate. One disadvantage of a multi-processing system is the added difficulty in operating system and possibly application software. Another limitation of SMP is that as microprocessors are added, the shared bus get overloaded and becomes a performance bottleneck. Symmetric Multiprocessor Master-slave multiprocessor is not reliable as if the master processor fails the whole system goes down.
A multicore CPU has various execution centers on one CPU. Presently, this can mean distinctive things relying upon the precise construction modeling, however it fundamentally implies that a sure subset of the CPU's segments is copied, so that various "centers" can work in parallel on partitioned operations. This is Chip-level Multprocessing (CMP).
In spite of the fact that multiprocessors have numerous favorable position it additionally have some detriment like complex in structure when contrasted with uni-processor framework.
Ans: Concurrency is a condition that comes into existence when there is a minimum of two threads are making progress. A more summed up form of Parallelism that can include time-slicing as a form of virtual parallelism.''
If a kernel thread suffers a page fault with multithreads, another thread can be swapped for it. if you have a single-threaded process, then it will not be capable of performing well when a page fault occurs. Therefore, in scenarios where a program might suffer from frequent page faults, a multi-threaded solution would perform better even on a single-processor system.
The processor (otherwise known as CPU) is the very soul and performance core of the computer system; it is what allows the operating system and other software applications to-run. Every program demands dedication from the processor to decode commands that are then actionedinside the CPU to make them work.When a program is running, the CPU has to make every command work consistently one after the other. However, modern processors have the power to process commands side by side. This means that the quicker the commands are executed, the quicker the program responds to the user. Central Processing Units (CPUs) play an important role when it comes to maintaining
In Symmetric Multiprocessor systems performance is high since each processor will have its own CPU, registers and cache. The processes will be allocated to each processor separately and each process runs on its own. So, if there are 3 processes then there will be 3 CPU’s which runs simultaneously and hence all the 3 processes will be completed at the same time. But in Asymmetric Multiprocessor systems performance is not high as symmetric because the operating system can process only one request at a time. Only after the process allocated
4. Applications where various of machines can be doled out for each to do a task e.g every processing a single file
The first benefit is that processes now have an increased memory in which to operate. Even a substantially large process can be accommodated by keeping the process partially active in physical memory and partially inactive on the swap space. The second advantage revolves around the process initialization. When a process is initialized, there are a bunch of initialization pages referenced early in the process’ lifecycle and are never used again. These pages are inactive and are moved to the on-disk backing store, while the rest of the process’ pages do their work using the physical
Since the invention of the first computer, engineers have been conceptualizing and implementing ways to optimize system performance. The last 25 years have seen a rapid evolution of many of these concepts, particularly cache memory, virtual memory, pipelining, and reduced set instruction computing (RISC). Individual each one of these concepts has helped to increase speed and efficiency thus enhancing overall system performance. Most systems today make use of many, if not all of these concepts. Arguments can be made to support the importance of any one of these concepts over one
3. Increased reliability. If functions can be distributed properly among several processors, then the failure of one processor will not halt the system, only slow it down. If we have ten processors and one fails, then each of the remaining nine processors can pick up a share of the work of the failed processor. Thus, the entire system runs only 10 percent slower, rather than failing
-In single-processor frameworks, the memory should be redesigned when a processor issues upgrades to reserved qualities. These upgrades can be performed instantly or in a languid way. -In a multiprocessor framework, distinctive processors may be reserving the same memory area in its nearby stores. At the point when redesigns are made, the other reserved areas should be discredited or overhauled.
In Concurrent and parallel Processing HP must focus on modifying the manufacturing process; in essence, modification of the product design. It helps to combine stems in a manufacturing process, thus reducing lead time.