In this lab or experiment, the aim was to determine the following factors of enzymes: (1) the effects of enzymes concentration the catalytic rate or the rate of the reaction, (2) the effects of pH on a particular enzyme, an enzyme known and referred throughout this experiment as ALP (alkaline phosphate enzyme) and lastly (3) the effects of various temperatures on the reaction or catalytic rate. Throughout the experiment 8 separate cuvettes and tubes are mixed with various solutions (labeled as tables 1,3 & 4 in the apparatus/materials sections of the lab) and tested for the effects of the factors mentioned above (concentration, pH and temperature). The tubes labeled 1-4 are tested for pH with pH paper and by spectrophotometer, cuvettes 1a-4a was tested for concentration and cuvettes labeled 1b-4b was tested for temperature in four different atmospheric conditions (4ºC, 23ºC, 32ºC and 60ºC) to see how the enzyme solution was affected by the various conditions. After carrying out the procedures the results showed that the experiment followed the theory for the most part, which is that all the factors work best at its optimum level. So, the optimum pH that the enzymes reacted at was a pH of 7 (neutral), the optimum temperature that the reactions occurs with the enzymes is a temperature of 4ºC or
The purpose of this experiment is to learn the effects of a certain enzyme (Peroxidase) concentration, to figure out the temperature and pH effects on Peroxidase activity and the effect of an inhibitor. The procedure includes using pH5, H202, Enzyme Extract, and Guaiacol and calibrating a spectrophotometer to determine the effect of enzyme concentration. As the experiment continues, the same reagents are used with the spectrophotometer to determine the temperature and pH effects on Peroxidase activity. Lastly, to determine the effect of an inhibitor on Peroxidase, an inhibitor is added to the extract. It was found that an increase in enzyme concentration also caused an increase in the reaction rate. The reaction rate of peroxidase increases at 40oC. Peroxidase performed the best under pH5 and declined as it became more basic. The inhibitor (Hydroxy-lamine) caused a decline in the reaction rate. The significance of this experiment is to find the optimal living conditions for Peroxidase. This enzyme is vital because it gets rid of hydrogen peroxide, which is toxic to living environments.
This experiment looked at how substrate concentration can affect enzyme activity. In this case the substrate was hydrogen peroxide and the enzyme was catalase. Pieces of meat providing the catalase were added to increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in order to measure the effect of hydrogen peroxide concentrations on the enzyme’s activity. The variable measured was oxygen produced, as water would be too difficult to measure with basic equipment.
These results shown from this experiment led us to conclude that enzymes work best at certain pH rates. For this particular enzyme, pH 7 worked best. When compared to high levels of pH, the lower levels worked better. The wrong level of pH can denature enzymes; therefore finding the right level is essential. The independent variable was the amount of pH, and the dependent being the rate of oxygen. The results are reliable as they are reinforced by the fact that enzymes typically work best at neutral pH
Background and Introduction: Enzymes are proteins that process substrates, which is the chemical molecule that enzymes work on to make products. Enzyme purpose is to increase the rate of activity and speed up chemical reaction in a form of biological catalysts. The enzymes specialize in lowering the activation energy to start the process. Enzymes are very specific in their process, each substrate is designed to fit with a specific substrate and the enzyme and substrate link at the active site. The binding of a substrate to the active site of an enzyme is a very specific interaction. Active sites are clefts or grooves on the surface of an enzyme, usually composed of amino acids from different parts of the polypeptide chain that are brought together in the tertiary structure of the folded protein. Substrates initially bind to the active site by noncovalent interactions, including hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrophobic interactions. Once a substrate is bound to the active site of an enzyme, multiple mechanisms can accelerate its conversion to the product of the reaction. But sometimes, these enzymes fail or succeed to increase the rate of action because of various factors that limit the action. These factors can be known as temperature, acidity levels (pH), enzyme and/or substrate concentration, etc. In this experiment, it will be tested how much of an effect
Figure 2 is a representation of the average saturation of each cuvette at a specific point time as a function. The y-axis shows the specific saturation points from figure 1, and the x-axis provides the different levels of pH. The pH scale provided on the x-axis ranges from 0 to 14, 0 being the most acidic and 14 being the most basic. The point chosen from figure 1 was the saturation levels of each cuvette at 110 seconds. The saturation point was chosen because in the previous graph at time 110 seconds the reactions of
Peroxidase is an enzyme found in potatoes that catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, into O2 gas and water. We examined the different pH environments that can affect the enzyme activity during the breakdown of H2O2. In order to do this, we added different levels of pH, low, medium, and high, into different test tubes with the enzyme and H2O2, and we then inverted the tube. The amount of O2 gas produced was then measured and recorded. The result was that the higher pH produced more gas, followed by medium pH, then low pH. The enzymes were more active in the pH of about 10. It increased
The objective of the lab was to examine the effects of environmental variables on the functions of an enzyme. To the point, an experiment was conducted to test the effect of pH on the function of the enzyme Amylase.
Enzymes are high molecular weight molecules and are proteins in nature. Enzymes work as catalysts in biochemical reactions in living organisms. Enzyme Catecholase is found on in plants, animals as well as fungi and is responsible for the darkening of different fruits. In most cases enzymatic activities are influenced by a number of factors, among them is temperature, PH, enzyme concentration as well as substrate concentration (Silverthorn, 2004). In this experiment enzyme catecholase was used to investigate the effects of PH and enzyme concentration on it rate of reaction. A pH buffer was used to control the PH, potato juice was used as the substrate and water was used as a solvent.
The purpose of this lab report is to investigate the effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity as tested with the enzyme catalase and the substrate hydrogen peroxide at several concentrations to produce oxygen. It was assumed that an increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration would decrease the amount of time the paper circle with the enzyme catalase present on it, sowing an increase in enzyme activity. Therefore it can be hypothesised that there would be an effect on catalase activity from the increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration measured in time for the paper circle to ride to the top of the solution.
The purpose of this investigation is to discover the effect of pH on the activity of catalase, an enzyme which plays the integral role of converting hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, and discover which pH level it will work at the most efficient rate (the optimum). The original hypothesis states that that the optimum would be at a pH is 7, due to the liver, where catalase usually resides, being neutral. The experiment consists of introducing the catalase to hydrogen peroxide, after exposure to certain solutions; hydrogen peroxide, water and hydrochloric acids, all containing the adjusted pH, and measuring the height of froth formed, an observable representation of the activity of the enzyme. The final data indicated that
Enzyme catalysis is dependant upon factors such as concentration of enzyme and substrate, temperature and pH. These factors determine the rate of reaction, and an increase in temperature or pH above the optimum will
To study the effects of temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration there were certain steps that were followed in order to conduct this experiment. Each factor had a separate procedure to follow to find how each had a different effect on the enzyme.
This investigation will be carried out to investigate the rate of reaction of the enzyme catalase on the substrate hydrogen peroxide.
Hydrogen peroxide is a toxic byproduct of cellular functions. To maintain hydrogen peroxide levels the catalase enzyme deconstructs hydrogen peroxide and reconstructs the reactants into oxygen gas and water. The catalase enzyme is found inside cells of most plants and animals. Regulating the levels of hydrogen peroxide is crucial in homeostasis and analyzing it’s optimal conditions for performance is just as important. To understand the optimal environment for this enzyme, they are put into different environments based off protein activity (enzymes are proteins). Catalase samples will be put into different hydrogen peroxide environments based off pH and temperature. The more active the enzyme, the more oxygen and water it will produce. Enzyme activity can be seen through the release of oxygen in the hydrogen peroxide. Since oxygen cannot be accurately measured, the data will consist of the longevity of the reaction in different environments. If the pH is higher than 7, then the reaction rate will increase due to the ample amount of hydrogen ions in the hydrogen peroxide. However the pH level cannot be higher than 10 or else there will be too many hydrogen atoms in the peroxide for the enzyme to be able to deconstruct them. If the temperature is increased, then the reaction rate will increase due to the ample amount of energy and movement in the hydrogen peroxide and enzyme.