How Temperature Affects The Solubility Of Salt Crystals

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Science – Final Submission Extended Experimental Investigation

How temperature affects the solubility of salt crystals in water

Sanjitha Dissanayake 10H

Introduction:
Intermolecular forces hold molecules together when they are in solid or liquid state. However, water has the ability to dissociate many salts and ionic compounds. This is called dissolving. When NaCl is added to water, it dissociates into the ions; Na+ and Cl- . The positive sodium ions are surrounded by the slightly negatively charged part of water molecules (i.e. oxygen) in the water molecules and the negative chlorine ions are surrounded by the slightly positively charged part of water molecules (i.e. the hydrogen). The kinetic energy of the sodium chloride molecules increase with temperature. This destabilizes the solid state that it is currently in. This increased motion means that the molecules are less able to hold together and as such they dissolve at faster rates and larger amounts.

Some terms that have to be defined are:
1. Solution – A solution is the end product of when a solvent and a solute are mixed.
2. Solvent – A solvent is the liquid that dissolves the solute to create the solution.
3. Solute – A solute is the material (solid, liquid or gas) that is dissolved in the solvent to create the solution.
4. Saturated solution – A solution is saturated when it holds the maximum amount of solute that it can dissolve.
5. Unsaturated solution – A solution is unsaturated

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