How The Brain Works: How Does Brain Work?

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How does the brain work? Well first and foremost sex happens. We each begin as a single microscopic cell, the fertilized egg. Within only 12 hours after fertilization, the single cell begins to divide forming a small mass of homogeneous cells that continually divide to form the blastocyst. By a week or so, the ICM or emerging human embryo separates into 3 distinct cell layers, the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm. As the cell layer thickens, it folds in on itself forming the neural groove, a thickened collection of cells form and from the 2nd-8th week, the ridges of the neural groove come together forming the neural tube. The neural tube is the beginning of the development of the brain. The anterior part of the neural tube consists …show more content…

In the neural tube, neuroepithelial cells line the ventricular wall, are densely packed, and form the ventricular zone. They will eventually divide and form radial cells which act as stem cells and provide scaffolding. While continuing to migrate, migrating cells then differentiate into neurons and glia. The development of the brain can now be considered, from a cellular viewpoint, as a sequence of six different stages, most of which happen during prenatal life. We first start off with phase 1, neurogenesis, which is the mitotic division of nonneuronal cells to produce neurons, phase 2, cell migration, is the massive movements of nerve cells or their precursors to distinct areas of the nervous system. The 3rd phase is cell differentiation, the changing of cells into distinct types of neurons or glial cells. Then we have the 4th stage of synaptogenesis, the formation of synaptic connections, which are equal to small gaps through which nervous system cells communicate to one …show more content…

The five major divisions of the brain are the telencephalon, the diencephalon, the mesencephalon, the metencephalon, and the myelencephalon. The telencephalon includes the cortex, basal ganglia, and the limbic system which are responsible for performing complex cognitive processing, voluntary movement, and in emotion and learning. The diencephalon is composed of the thalamus and hypothalamus and these are responsible for all incoming sensory information to go to the appropriate regions of the cortex for further processing and the hypothalamus is responsible in regulating several vital functions by controlling the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. The mesencephalon includes the tectum, which is composed of the inferior colliculi, and the superior colliculi and these structures are involved with auditory and visual functions. The metencephalon consists of the pons and the cerebellum and their main function is sensorimotor

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