How The Staining Of The Centromere Sequences Using Fish

1927 WordsApr 24, 20178 Pages
How the staining of the centromere sequences using FISH can be used to determine the sex of metaphase chromosomes and how immunostaining of the synaptomenal complex of meiotic cells can show the stages involved in prophase. Abstract Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and immunostaining are both processes that allow for specific features within a chromosome to be observed. FISH is when a DNA probe that is fluorescently tagged complementary binds to a specific sequence in the chromosome, in this case, the sex chromosome centromeres. Immunostaining is the process where a primary antibody specifically binds to a protein of interest, then a fluorescently tagged secondary antibody complementary binds to the primary antibody, thus…show more content…
This is because X chromosomes display a red signal, whereas the Y chromosome presents a green signal. Therefore, since females have two X chromosomes and males have a single X and Y chromosome, the sex of the cell donor can be identified (Moers & et al 1995). Meiosis is a form of cell division that halves the amount of chromosomes in sexually reproducing organisms (Bernstein et al 2011) to form gametes. In meiotic cell division, DNA replication is followed by two rounds of cell division to create four daughter cells, each with half the amount of chromosomes as the parent. Meiosis is split into two round called Meiosis I and Meiosis II and each round of meiosis is made up of four stages called prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. The longest, most complex stage of meiosis is Prophase I as it is split into 5 phases called lepotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, and diakinesis (Tworzydlo & et al 2016). In these stages of prophase, chromosome pairing, synaptomenal complex formation, and recombination occur. The formation of the synaptomenal complex allows for the chromosomes to know if they have successfully paired. This complex can be stained by SPC3 as it binds to the lateral elements of the synaptomenal complex. In this practical, immunostaining process allows for it to be confirmed which proteins are associated with the meiotic chromosomes. This immunostaining process

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