How important was Martin Luther in influencing the course of the Reformation?

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How important was Martin Luther in influencing the course of the Reformation?

Martin Luther played a vital role in the start of the Reformation, his actions from 1517 allowed people to start forming their own opinions on religion and the church. Between 1517 and 1522 Martin Luther wa pivotal in the course of the Reformation. On the 31st October 1517 Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses on a door of All Saint’s Church in Wittenburg, provoked by indulgences sold by John Tetzel in villages around Germany; he was selling to relatives of people who had died. This money was needed in order to pay back debts to the Fugger bank for buying Albrecht of Brandenburg third bishopric and to build St Peter’s Church. This Theses was addressed to Pope Leo
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After Luther was excommunicated at Worms in 1521, many princes ignored Charles V who outlawed Luther and his books.Philip of hesse formed the luteran league of Torgau, with an aim to ensure the Edict of Worms was not implemented, which was attepting to stop the spread of Lutheranism by banning books and teachings.At the Diet of Speyer in 1526 held by Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria the protestant princes for the first time professed their faith. Charles V wanted to support princes due to the threat of the Ottoman Empire but he also wanted to suppress Lutheranism. The diet concluded that the princes would have princely autonomy, which allowed the princes to adopt new religion without fear. “Each one [prince] is to rule and at as he hopes to answer to God and his Imperial majesty.” This made Lutheranism spread much easier. In 1531 the League of Schmalkalden was formed by Philip I Landgrave of Hesse and John Frederick which was a territorial political movement to break from Rome giving them economic advantages as money would go to their territories rather than to Rome. Members of this intended for this to replace the Holy Roman Empire.They would confiscate church land and expel Catholic leaders, this lasted for fifteen years without opposition, until the Schmalkaldic War from 1546-1547 which Charles V and his allies fought the league and won. But this league allowed Lutheranism to be established firmly therefore the

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