How to Make Soap

633 WordsFeb 26, 20182 Pages
At the beginning: Oil and the base form different layers at the beginning of the reaction because oil is hydrophobic and the base is hydrophilic. Later on: As you mix and stir the acid and base together, they start to react. The triglycerides(triesters of fatty acids and glycerin) within the acid are treated with a strong base (Hydrolysis of triglyceride esters), which accelerates cleavage of the ester bond and releases a single glycerol molecule(which turns into skin nourishing glycerin) allowing the fatty acids to combine with the hydroxide ions within the base, forming soap(the precipitate we have on the surface by the end of heating it). Thus, two reactions occur. The first reaction is glycerol turning into beneficial glycerin, and the second reaction is the acid and the base combining to form a salt which is our soap. This stirring process mechanically mixes the base and the oils, causing the oils to change into soap, or saponify. The more the mixture is stirred, the more the reaction takes place and the faster it goes. Ethanol: Fats and oils aren’t soluble in water, thus the saponification process proceeds very slowly; that’s why ethanol is used to bring the fatty ester and base into the same phase. One method is to use alcohol as a solvent to solubilize the fat and base together and to help further break down the oils. The solution of NaOH in ethanol will dissolve the fat to be hydrolyzed and the rate of reaction will be much faster. Also, Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is
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