How to Measure Social Culture and Organizational Culture of One Country

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How to measure social culture and organizational culture of one country is an important issue (Miroshnik, 2002). Culture can be defined as the way of life of the group of people, which includes beliefs, art, law, morals, customs, and any capabilities and habits acquired by a man as a member of society, and enables people to communicate with others, provides the knowledge and skill necessary, and anticipates how others in society are likely to respond for the actions (Miroshnik, 2002).
In other hand, managers frequently view culture as the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another and the interactive aggregate of common characteristics that influence a group's
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For examples, Indonesians avoid admitting lack of knowledge, inability to complete something, or deny something that it is actually true in order to show dignity.
Indonesians are polite people. Upon meeting and leaving, it is usual to shake hands with both men and women. The other example is Indonesians avoid using left hand when offering something to others, because it is regarded as the unclean hand. It is also rude to point someone with a finger (Makmur, 2002). The fact is Indonesian cultural values do not adapt or include some of the elements in the western societies.


Country profile
Singapore is located in Southeast Asia between Malaysia and Indonesia. Singapore was part of Malaysia in 1963-1965. The government of Malaysia decided to separate from Singapore in order to avoid further violence between Chinese dominated Singaporean and Malay Muslim communities. Through the 1990s, Singapore experienced sustained economic growth along with "Four Tigers" which are Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan. The economy depends heavily on export trade, particularly on manufacturing and electronics sector. Singapore's population was reported by the government at 4,351,400 in July 2005, and the ethnic Chinese make up 76.8 percent of the population. Malay is the national language and one of the four official languages, along with Chinese, Tamil, and English,
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