Howard Spodek's Chapter 17 Notes Essay

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BRITIAN, 1700-1860
• British cotton textile industry grew into the worlds most productive; its railway network became the nation’s principal means of inland transportation and communication; and a new fleet of steam-powered ships enabled Britain to project its new productivity and power around the globe.
• A Revolution in Agriculture o Jethro Tull invented the seed drill that replaced to old method of scattering seeds by hand on the surface of the soil. o Enclosure acts: laws passed in England in the late 1700s to 1800s that converted public lands held in common into parcels of land to be sold to private owners.
• A Revolution in Textile Manufacture o Most spinning was accomplished using a
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o As the industrial revolution began in semi-rural locations, its labor force was drawn primarily from young, unmarried women, frequently daughters of local farmers. o As new machinery became heavier, as factory work became more prevalent, and as economic depression pressed down on both American and British economies, the workforce shifted to men, often farmers and immigrants. o The social wing of the feminist movement understood that class differences often inhibited solidarity among women.
• Political, Economic, and Social Reform in Britain o Britain’s government, recognizing that industrialization was transforming Britain away from its aristocratic and agrarian traditions and fearful of the consequences, responded initially by trying to repress the movement for reform. o In addition to political reform, Parliament addressed the demands of economic and social legislation. o Parliament abolished slavery in the British Empire in 1833 and passed a new Poor Law in 1834, which provided assistance just adequate to sustain life. o The two major political parties, Liberals and Tories, competed directly for the favor of he industrial workers. o While women finally gained the right to vote in both Britain and the United States after World War I, it was not without a long and often violent struggle.
• Labor Organization o Like women, who
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