Hrm in Japan, Usa and Europe

9900 Words Dec 24th, 2005 40 Pages
INTRODUCTION
The concept of human resource management has attracted considerable attention over the last two decades from scholars and practitioners alike. While part of the debate has centered on its application and theoretical underpinnings, the other has been on its prescriptive value for the survival of organizations in a turbulent and a volatile business environment. More recently, the issue of whether to situate the HRM debate in the organizational or the international context has arisen. This is because organizational responses such as delayering, empowerment, work intensification, flexibility and redundancy appear to have gained as much weight as the macro-environmental drivers of HRM such as competition, technology, economic
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In pursuit of such short-term profit goals, American firms emphasized cost reduction measures such as removal of discretionary expenditures like training and research and reducing employee headcount.
Apart from differences in values, the emergence of HRM is further attributed to the pressures experienced in the product markets during the 1980-1982 recession in the United States of America; the decline of trade unionism; challenges emanating from overseas competitors especially Japan and declining rates of innovation in American industries .These developments sparked the desire to create a free work situation in which the employer and employee worked towards the same goal - the success of the organization. Elsewhere in Europe, the emergence of HRM has been linked to the internationalization of competition as a result of gradual reduction of barriers to trade globally and the reform of the public sector involving privatization of state corporations that had the effect of marginalizing trade unions. Pinnington & Edwards (2000), explain that in the UK in particular, such change was meant to introduce a business and market culture into a bureaucratic and an inefficient public sector and stimulate competition, which the UK was losing to the rest of Europe. The government engineered political as well as economic
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