Human Adenoviruses ( Advs )

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History Adenoviruses (Advs) were isolated by Rowe and colleagues for the first time in 1953, while studying the polioviruses growth in adenoidal tissue. They identified an infectious agent which was capable of producing cytopathic effect in tissues in the absence of poliovirus. Adenoviruses were named after adenoid, the lymphoid tissue from which they were first isolated (Hilleman and Werner, 1954; Rowe, et al., 1955). In 1980, it was demonstrated that the enteric Advs associated with infantile diarrhea, differed from other human adenoviruses (HAdvs) by being fastidious in their in vitro growth requirements (Wadell, 1999). Outbreaks of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis characteristics of Advs were known among factory workers in Germany during the nineteenth century (Wadell, 1999; Fong and Lipp, 2005). Epidemiology From the 1950s through 1970s, reports revealed that approximately 50% of adenovirus infections occurred early in childhood were asymptomatic, and generally symptomatic infections were mild without complications. However, the situation was fairly different for US military residents concurrently studied during this period. New military trainers often suffered explosive adenovirus outbreaks and many of them required hospitalizations for pneumonia. These outbreaks were often caused by adenovirus (Ad) types 4, 7, and 21 which became the targets of vaccine development (Gaydos and Gaydos, 1995). Due to progresses in molecular diagnostics, adenoviruses have been linked to

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