Mr. Gawande starts his literature on washing hands. He introduces two friends a microbiologist and an infectious disease specialist. Both work hard and diligently against the spread of diseases just like Semmelweis who is mentioned in the chapter. Something I learned, that not many realize, is that each year two million people acquire an infection while they are in the hospital. Mainly because the clinicians only wash their hands one-third to one-half as many times as they should. Semmelweis, mentioned earlier, concluded in 1847 that doctors themselves were to blame for childbed fever, which was the leading cause of
The global use of vaccines has been very successful in reducing the incidence of infectious diseases and their associated complications. For centuries, infectious diseases were the most common cause of disability and death in the world. Until the 19th century, it was not known what caused these diseases and why some people became seriously ill with an infection while others were less affected.
Harley, D, Sleigh, A & and Ritchie, S 2011, ‘Ross river virus transmission, infection, and disease: a cross-disciplinary review’, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 909-932, doi:10.1128/CMR.14.4.909-932.2001
Many people are affected each year by what is usually misdiagnosed as the “stomach flu”. The official medical term for this illness is Norovirus, but is also known as Norwalk Virus. It was first seen in 1968 at Bronson Elementary School in Norwalk, Ohio. The first outbreak occurred at the elementary school, infecting 116 of the 223 students and teachers. Norovirus is a contagious virus that can lead to an infection called acute gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, which results in diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. In the United States alone, 19-21 million cases, 56,000-71,000 hospitalizations, and 570-800 deaths are reported each year (CDC).
There is still a great deal of information to learn from the study of viruses and the continued exploration of the viral genome is crucial in understanding how viruses communicate, transmit from host to host and evade immune responses. The ever-change nature of the viral genome has shown us that the most dangerous viral infections of today may be undermined by newer and more effective viruses, resulting in catastrophic outcomes. Through the study of viruses, it is the hope of the scientific community to be ahead of the viral curve, preventing infections before they even
The norovirus is small and round. It is only 27-35 nm in diameter. The virus contains a single- stranded RNA genome. Noroviruses are divided into five genogroups, G1- G5. Of these five genogroups, only G1, G2, and G4 are known to infect humans. G2 is the most common in adult cases of gastroenteritis. 1 “Noroviruses are not enveloped and contain an outer protein capsid encapsulating an RNA genome.”2
Vaccines are one of the most important chemistry evolvements in the history of both the Air Force and mankind. They have had a significant impact on the Air Force and the military as a whole. Vaccines were first described by the philosopher Thucydides in 430 B.C. when he said that man would not get the chicken pox twice due to previous exposure.6 This was then expanded on by Edward Jenner in 1796, when he created the first official smallpox vaccine and made it available to the public.2 Vaccines have become a highly debated topic in the medical field today. Although there are alleged negative side effects, the effectiveness of vaccines cannot be properly argued against. In figure 1 to the right, the cases of measles are shown over a 57 year period. Around 1965 when the vaccine was officially licensed, the number of cases dramatically dropped down to levels close to zero and has been steadily low ever since. Many think that this is a direct impact of vaccination. Others state increasingly clean standards of living and overall human advancement as the cause and discount the apparent achievements of vaccines. There have been many groups formed over the years that are against vaccines and try to show the public the ineffectiveness and danger of these immunizations. In 1870, the Anti Vaccination Society of America was formed.18 This led to many battles in court and one case went all the way to the Supreme Court. In 1905, the Supreme Court ruled against a man who did not want to
Modern medicine has allowed us to live longer and more prosperous lives than those in past generations. We have developed methods to ensure that we are eating and consuming the correct nutrients to be healthy, which assisted in lowering the rates of many types of diseases. Some specific illnesses however, can be contracted and spread, despite individuals’ attempts to pursue healthy lifestyles. With the invention of the vaccine in the late 1700s and its mass implementation in the twentieth century, our society saw the dramatic decline of many infectious diseases that once plagued families and populations of people. Vaccine shots begin at a young age and continue all throughout our lives to make sure we are kept safe from such potentially lethal
Human norovirues (HuNoVs) are highly contagious and cause gastrointestinal illnesses in humans. This virus rapidly spreads amongst people through feces or the consumption of contaminated food or water, causing strain on the economy due to health care costs and the loss of productivity by infected workers. Healthy adults were studied, to prove the hypothesis regarding the replication of noroviruses in different environments. Tests were done to demonstrate that human intestinal enteroids (HIE), the group of cultures that compromise the inner surfaces the small and large intestine, do support HuNoV growth. The positive results of these tests suggests that HuNoVs do not require bacteria for infection. Further studies conclude that HuNoVs are able
Protecting the human weapon system, the central element of military power, is pivotal. Absent “craniums at the controls,” “boots on the ground,” and “hands on deck,” wars cannot be won. Strained budgets, emerging technologies, and evolving threats have pressed the United States to transform its military into a lighter, leaner, and more agile force. With fewer people performing more specialized roles, it is critical for each military member to remain healthy, fit, and effective. Such is the challenge, as DOD personnel are often placed in austere locations, on short notice, and under stressful conditions, where naturally acquired infectious threats are abundant, immune systems are naïve, and healthcare support is limited. A vital part of FHP, immunization is effective in mitigating these operational hurdles (http://www.readperiodicals.com/201104/2356430651.html).
Jonathan Bowden age 8 came in August 13, with slight respiratory problems. After taking a Multiplex PCR test (a way to amplify DNA in samples using primers and temperature-mediated DNA polymerase in a thermal cylinder), results came back high in a certain class of viruses: rhinovirus and enterovirus. The test doesnt tell us which is which, but knowing rhinovirus was more of a late fall/ winter problem. We were right in the midst of the enterovirus season. Although PEM is rare, its been on the rise, at least 500 children in 42 states contracted the virus in the past three months.
Since the investigation occurred on three different college campuses across the country there will be three different investigations discussed. It was determined that this outbreak of the norovirus was definitely not linked and often experienced different modes of transmission. In addition there are 4 limits to the investigation which include the lack analytics conducted on two of the three college campuses; a single efficacy could not be identified; there was a low rate of self-reporting therefore the number of cases and attacks rates are not as accurate; and there was no single case definition used to identify patients during outbreak.
While not confirmed for every person, norovirus was confirmed to be the cause of the sickness in one of the cases, and the other cases being “probable.” The symptoms of norovirus include vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. It causes the most cases of food-borne outbreaks each year.
After the UV irradiation, the irradiated samples were shipped to UTSPH El Paso to perform all the adenovirus infectivity assays. After the UV irradiation, the irradiated samples were shipped to UTSPH El Paso to perform all the adenovirus infectivity assays. The infectivity assays using mRNA-qPCR method were performed for all the exposed viruses. In addition, aliquots of the exposed isolates were kept at the CU Boulder Linden laboratory. Analysis of capsid integrity was performed using the Propidium Monoazided (PMA)-qPCR method for those isolates.
JCV belongs to the Polyomaviridae family comprising non-enveloped tumor viruses with icosahedral capsids containing small, circular, double-stranded DNA genomes [White et al., 2005]; it encloses a large number of members that are able to infect various animal species including rodents, rabbits, birds and primates, including man [Imperiale, 2001; Delbue et al., 2012]; in particular, to date, have been discovered 11 polyomaviruses infecting man [White et al., 2013; Feltkamp et al., 2013] (Fig. 1.1). The JC human polyomavirus was isolated in 1971 and in the same year it was discovered the polyomavirus human BK (BKV) [Gardner et al., 1971; Padgett et al., 1971]. The transmission is not fully understood. In humans the first site to be infected